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Lighting systems

Lighting systems

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Illuminating the work or living spaces, both interior and exterior, is a fundamental engineering function and requirement. In order to perform it properly, light knowledge and lighting equipment characteristics and behavior, and a complete understanding of the space use are necessary. Various activities that are taking place within the space have different illumination requirements and specifications. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) and other regulatory bodies have established criteria for lighting applications, and some of them are discussed in this chapter. Light is not only needed in visual task areas but also for the perception in the designated space. Rooms and designated spaces should be illuminated properly and in agreement with codes and standards. An extensive range of light sources and luminaires are available to provide adequate lighting. Significant lighting technical progresses have expanded its scopes, which in turn led to the development of specialized and efficient lighting systems and equipment. Lightning principles, concepts, parameters, lighting design process and methods, lighting equipment and systems, characteristics, and performances are discussed in this chapter. The factors involved in determining illumination requirements are analyzed in relation to the lighting levels for various tasks and the possible use of daylight. Lighting system design considerations related to luminaires are also addressed here. The purpose of a luminaire is 2-fold, i.e., to hold, protect, and connect a lamp(s) to the electrical system, and to control the light output. The needs for trade-offs and qualitative decisions when selecting luminaires for a particular space are emphasized. Standards, codes, and specifications for lighting systems are also included and discussed. Examples of lightning calculations, applications are also included. These examples demonstrate how the modern and advanced lighting technologies can be integrated, eventually with the daylight to ensure very efficient and high quality lightning applications and environment. After completing this chapter, the readers must have an understanding of the fundamentals of lighting system design, particularly for indoor areas, the lighting technologies available for commercial and industrial applications, their advantages and disadvantages, and how they work. However, this chapter does not intend to compete with the existing comprehensive lighting engineering textbooks and lightning manuals, or to be added to the limited number of beautifully illustrated volumes containing finished projects. On the other hand, an understanding of lighting fundamentals, equipment, codes, and standards are essential for engineers and decision-makers, evaluating lighting upgrades, improvement or changes. After completing this chapter, the readers must have good understanding of the lighting system types, operation, characteristics and design, fundamental lighting terms, units, and definitions and to be able to apply photometric data, to analyze, compute, and design lighting systems, to select the proper lighting system components in order to provide the most adequate lighting levels and the most efficient and cost-effective lighting. The readers also have a basic understanding of the lighting system control, the importance of lighting system in the building energy system and to apply the lighting system retrofits to improve energy efficiency, as well as the requirements of the lighting standards and codes.

Chapter Contents:

  • Objectives and abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction, lighting basics
  • 7.2 Lighting in engineering, architecture, industrial process, and building operation
  • 7.3 Lighting theory and illumination calculation methods
  • 7.3.1 Basic parameters used in lighting physics
  • 7.3.2 The visible spectrum and color
  • 7.3.3 Color specifications and characteristics
  • 7.3.4 Light control and basic concepts in optics
  • 7.4 Lighting equipment and systems
  • 7.4.1 Light sources and systems
  • 7.4.2 Lamp efficiencies, control, and electrical requirements
  • 7.4.3 Common lamp luminances and luminaires
  • 7.5 Indoor and outdoor lighting design
  • 7.5.1 Factors affecting the selection of the light sources and equipment
  • 7.5.2 Lighting design project structure and criteria
  • 7.5.3 Indoor lighting design methods
  • 7.5.4 Outdoor lighting design
  • 7.6 Chapter summary
  • References and further readings
  • Questions and problems

Inspec keywords: energy conservation; daylighting; brightness; maintenance engineering

Other keywords: lighting technical progresses; high quality lightning applications; illumination requirements; luminaire; lighting system types; building energy system; light sources; light output; energy efficiency; lighting levels; fundamental lighting terms; lighting equipment characteristics; lighting system components; lighting system control; advanced lighting technologies; lightning manuals; lighting system retrofits; lighting engineering textbooks; IESNA; system design; lighting standards; lighting upgrades; Illuminating Engineering Society of North America

Subjects: Lighting; Lighting (energy utilisation)

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