Load characteristics, wiring, and power cables

Load characteristics, wiring, and power cables

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Electrical distribution networks, transmission lines, electrical service, wiring devices, protection, and equipment are essential building subsystems and components. Power engineers are concerned with every step and aspects in the process of electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization. Adequate electricity amount and its efficient utilization are essential for the growth and development of any country. Past developments of the power distribution often resulted in higher system losses and poor power quality services. Consequently, an efficient and effective power distribution network, building, or industrial electric systems have become important issues. By optimizing the power distribution, reducing the capital cost, power losses, and improving the power quality are critical issues in power system operation and management, resulting in substantial savings of energy. However, the electric load varies with time and place, such as the load variation customer types and the power production and distribution system must respond to the customers' load demand at any time. Therefore, modern electricity distribution utilities need accurate load data for pricing and tariff planning, distribution network planning and operation, power generation planning, load management, customer service and billing, and finally to provide information to customers and public authorities. After completing this chapter, students and readers are able to learn and understand the power distribution network structure, configurations, operation and management, and the impacts on the building electrical, mechanical, thermal, energy and lighting systems, as well as a good understanding of the building electrical system operation, components and equipment, and related issues. They will also learn to estimate and compute the demand load, apply demand factors, determine demand load for motor, equipment and appliances, understand methods to calculate cable and conductor sizing and capacity, voltage drop calculations and service entrance, operation, parameters and characteristics of wiring devices and their applications, and to develop an understanding and appreciation of the importance of codes and standards.

Chapter Contents:

  • Objectives and abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction, building energy analysis, and electrical design procedure
  • 4.1.1 Electrical design procedure and building energy analysis
  • 4.1.2 Branch circuits and feeders
  • 4.2 Load estimate and calculations
  • 4.2.1 Convenience power, connected and demand loads
  • 4.2.2 Lighting load estimate methods
  • 4.2.3 Dedicated and general-purpose receptacle load estimates
  • 4.2.4 Equipment, auxiliary, industrial, and motor load calculations
  • 4.2.5 Heating, cooling, electric cooking, and laundry equipment
  • 4.2.6 Load and correction factors estimate applications
  • 4.3 Conductors and cables
  • 4.3.1 Conductor types and sizes
  • 4.3.2 Cable impedance calculations
  • 4.3.3 Conductor ampacity
  • 4.3.4 Cable corrections factors
  • 4.3.5 Voltage drop calculation
  • 4.3.6 Cable construction
  • 4.4 Wiring devices
  • 4.4.1 Switches
  • 4.4.2 Receptacles
  • 4.4.3 Disconnect switches
  • 4.5 Summary of the load computation procedure and cable sizing
  • 4.6 Chapter summary
  • References and further readings
  • Questions and problems

Inspec keywords: power distribution economics; pricing; load management; building wiring; customer services; tariffs; power cables; power supply quality; power distribution planning; power generation planning

Other keywords: power cables; lighting systems; transmission lines; conductor sizing; building electrical system operation; capital cost reduction; load data; electrical distribution networks; modern electricity distribution utilities; load characteristics; building subsystems; power losses; efficient power distribution network; power production; wiring devices; electrical service; load management; power quality services; power generation planning; industrial electric systems; voltage drop calculations; tariff planning; distribution system; energy savings; customer service; power system operation; system losses; electricity distribution utilities; electric load; effective power distribution network; distribution network planning; power distribution network structure; demand load; electricity generation

Subjects: Power system planning and layout; Power cables; Distribution networks; Power system management, operation and economics; Power supply quality and harmonics

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