Energy storage systems

Energy storage systems

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Over the last few decades several innovative ideas have been explored in the energy storage areas, ranging in size, capacity, design complexity, and targeted applications. Some of them are designed for large scale power system applications, others for smallor medium-scale renewable energy or hybrid power systems, while the others are designed to perform short-term energy storage ride through for critical infrastructure (communication systems, hospitals, military facilities, etc.). Energy storage has become an enabling technology for renewable energy applications, grid integration and enhancing power quality and stability in the power transmission and distribution, having a great potential to improve power grid quality and stability and to provide an alternative to fossil fuel-based energy generation. The major constraints for renewable energy penetration are the availability, intermittency, and variability, which can be addressed through energy storage. The energy storage choice depends on specific usage requirements, often incorporating several energy storage systems in order to increase system reliability, capacity, and supply security. In the electric power system, the renewable energy promise lies in its potential to increase grid efficiency, reliability, or in optimizing power flows and supporting variable power supplies. The parameters used in comparisons of various energy storage technologies include efficiency, energy capacity and density, run time, costs, system's response time, lifetime in years and cycles, self-discharge, and maturity of each energy storage technology. The most common energy storage technologies include compressed air, pumped hydro, batteries, fuel cells, flywheels, and super-capacitors. The last four are suitable for the medium scale applications. The chapter discussed energy storage technologies and gives an up to date comparative summary of their performances. After completing this chapter, the readers are able to understand the role, importance, configurations and topologies of energy storage systems, operation principles, characteristics, performances, and operation of major energy storage systems used in power systems, buildings, and industrial facilities. Another benefit is that readers are able to understand the critical role and necessity of energy storage systems in power and renewable energy systems, the differences between large-, mediumand small-scale energy storage systems, and how a system is selected on specific applications based on system characteristics and performances. Major energy storage technologies discussed in this chapter are compressed air energy storage, pumped hydropower storage systems, batteries, flywheels, hydrogen energy storage, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and superconducting energy storage systems. Thermal energy storage systems are covered in detail in the next chapter. This chapter provides comprehensive reviews of the energy storage technologies and gives an up to date comparative summary of their performances, characteristics, and applications.

Chapter Contents:

  • Objectives and abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction and energy storage importance
  • 11.2 Energy storage functions and applications
  • 11.2.1 Summary of benefits from energy storage
  • 11.3 Energy storage system types
  • 11.3.1 Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES)
  • 11.3.2 Compressed air energy storage (CAES)
  • 11.3.3 Electrochemical energy storage
  • 11.3.4 Battery operation principles and battery types
  • 11.3.5 Battery fundamentals, parameters, and electric circuit models
  • Summary of battery parameters
  • 11.3.6 Flow batteries and special battery types
  • 11.3.7 Fuel cells and hydrogen energy
  • Hydrogen storage and economy
  • Fuel cell principles and operation
  • Fuel cell types and applications
  • 11.3.8 Flywheel energy storage (FES)
  • 11.3.9 Superconducting magnetic energy storage
  • 11.3.10 Supercapacitors
  • 11.4 Chapter summary
  • References and further readings
  • Questions and problems

Inspec keywords: compressed air energy storage; fossil fuels; power grids; supercapacitors; hydroelectric power; pumped-storage power stations; flywheels; renewable energy sources; solar power; thermal energy storage

Other keywords: short-term energy storage ride; compressed air energy storage; energy storage areas; large scale power system applications; variable power supplies; superconducting energy storage systems; grid efficiency; energy storage technology; super-capacitors; pumped hydropower storage systems; fuel cells; thermal energy storage systems; renewable energy systems; small-scale energy storage systems; flywheels; electric power system; renewable energy applications; hydrogen energy storage; power flows

Subjects: Direct energy conversion and energy storage; Energy storage

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