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Interaction of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning with overhead electrical networks

Interaction of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning with overhead electrical networks

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In this chapter, the authors present the theory describing the interaction of lightning electromagnetic fields with overhead lines, with particular reference to electrical power networks. The first part of the chapter, presents different approaches and formulations that can be used to describe the coupling between an external electromagnetic field and a transmission line. Then, the selected field-to-transmission line coupling model was extended to include the effects of a lossy earth serving as a return conductor and to deal with the case of multiconductor lines. The time-domain representation of coupling equations, useful for analysing nonlinearities, was also be dealt with. The experimental test and validation of coupling models using data from natural and artificially triggered lightning, EMP simulators, or reduced scale models were presented in the first part of the chapter. In the second part of the chapter, the illustrated mathematical models were applied to compute lightning-induced overvoltages on overhead power distribution lines. This chapter particularly discussed the influence on the amplitude and waveshape of lightning-induced voltages of: the finite ground conductivity; the presence of shielding wires; the downward leader phase of the lightning discharge that precedes the return stroke phase and; the corona effect.

Chapter Contents:

  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Field-to-transmission line coupling models
  • 12.2.1 Use of the transmission line theory
  • 12.2.2 Case of single-wire line above a perfectly conducting ground
  • 12.2.3 Agrawal et al. model
  • 12.2.4 Taylor, Satterwhite, and Harrison model
  • 12.2.5 Rachidi model
  • 12.2.6 Contribution of the different components of the electromagnetic field in the coupling mechanism
  • 12.2.7 Other models
  • 12.2.8 Inclusion of losses
  • 12.2.9 Discussion on the relative importance of different transmission line parameters when calculating lightning-induced voltages
  • 12.2.10 Case of multiconductor lines
  • 12.2.11 Time-domain representation of coupling equations
  • 12.2.12 Experimental validation of the field-to-transmission line coupling models
  • 12.3 Lightning-induced voltages on overhead power lines
  • 12.3.1 Return stroke current model, computation of the incident electromagnetic field, and coupling model
  • 12.3.2 Mechanism of voltage induction by a nearby lightning return stroke on an overhead line
  • 12.3.3 Preliminary remarks on the influence of the ground resistivity on the induced voltages
  • 12.3.4 Sensitivity analysis and discussion
  • 12.3.5 Influence of additional factors (downward leader, corona, channel inclination and tortuosity)
  • 12.3.6 Application to realistic cases: use of the LIOV-EMTP
  • References

Inspec keywords: electromagnetic pulse; corona; shielding; electromagnetic fields; lightning; multiconductor transmission lines; power overhead lines

Other keywords: corona effect; return stroke phase; shielding wires; overhead electrical networks; downward leader phase; lossy earth; lightning discharge; finite ground conductivity; coupling equations; field-to-transmission line coupling model; lightning induced overvoltage waveshape; external electromagnetic field; multiconductor lines; lightning generated electromagnetic field; electromagnetic field interaction; return conductor; reduced scale model; EMP simulator

Subjects: Overhead power lines; Gaseous insulation, breakdown and discharges; Electromagnetic compatibility and interference

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