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On the various approximations to calculate lightning return stroke-generated electric and magnetic fields over finitely conducting ground

On the various approximations to calculate lightning return stroke-generated electric and magnetic fields over finitely conducting ground

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The knowledge concerning the characteristics of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning flashes is of importance in evaluating the interaction of these electromagnetic fields with electrical networks and in the remote sensing of lightning current parameters from the measured fields. However, electromagnetic fields generated by lightning flashes change their character as they propagate over the ground surface due to selective attenuation of the high frequency signals by finitely conducting ground (i.e. propagation effects). Thus, depending on the distance of propagation and the conductivity of ground, the peak and the rise time of the lightning-generated electromagnetic fields and their time derivatives measured at a given distance from the lightning channel may deviate more or less from the values that would be present over perfectly conducting ground.

Chapter Contents:

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Exact expressions for the electromagnetic fields of a dipole located over finitely conducting ground and their extension to return stroke fields
  • 11.2.1 Exact expressions for the vector potential of a dipole over finitely conducting ground
  • 11.2.2 The exact expressions for the electromagnetic fields of a dipole over finitely conducting ground
  • 11.2.3 Electromagnetic fields of return strokes
  • 11.3 Return stroke models utilised in testing the approximate expressions
  • 11.4 Summary of exact propagation effects in the vicinity of the channel
  • 11.5 Simplified procedures to calculate electric and magnetic fields over finitely conducting ground
  • 11.5.1 Norton's and Bannister's approximations
  • 11.5.2 Simplified expressions to calculate vertical electric field and horizontal magnetic field over finitely conducting ground
  • 11.5.3 Propagation effects on radiation fields of the first return strokes of negative and positive lightning flashes
  • 11.5.4 The reason why propagation effects vary with the shape of the radiation field
  • 11.5.5 The effect of propagation on electromagnetic fields generated by cloud flashes
  • 11.5.6 Simplified expressions to calculate the horizontal electric field
  • 11.5.7 Barbosa and Paulino expression to calculate the horizontal electric field
  • 11.5.8 Approximate time domain expressions to calculate underground electric fields
  • 11.6 Propagation over vertically stratified ground or multi-section path
  • 11.6.1 Expressions for the attenuation function for a dipole at ground level
  • 11.6.2 Simplified expression for the electromagnetic fields from lightning over vertically stratified ground
  • 11.6.3 Some interesting effects of vertically stratified ground on radiation fields
  • 11.7 Propagation effects over horizontally stratified ground
  • 11.7.1 Wait's simplified expressions for the attenuation function for a dipole at ground level
  • 11.7.2 Simplified expression for the electromagnetic fields from lightning over vertically stratified ground
  • 11.7.3 Some interesting effects of horizontally stratified ground on radiation fields
  • 11.8 Future studies
  • References

Inspec keywords: lightning; geomagnetism

Other keywords: lightning return stroke-generated electric field; high frequency signals; lightning channel; electrical networks; finitely conducting ground; lightning return stroke-generated magnetic field; lightning-generated electromagnetic fields

Subjects: Atmospheric electricity; Geoelectricity; electromagnetic induction and conductivity

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