http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com
1887

Charge structure and geographical variation of thunderclouds

Charge structure and geographical variation of thunderclouds

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy chapter PDF
$16.00
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 chapters for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Name:*
Email:*
Your details
Name:*
Email:*
Department:*
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
 
 
 
 
 
The Lightning Flash — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Clouds in the Earth's atmosphere are composed of water droplets and ice crystals. Clouds are commonly white in appearance because these liquid and solid particles are large relative to the wavelengths of visible light, and so no selective scattering occurs to colour the cloud. Owing to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei, clouds appear whenever the air becomes locally supersaturated in water vapour. This supersaturation condition is most often achieved by a lifting process in which air parcels subsaturated with respect to water vapour cool by adiabatic expansion. The lifting process is usually caused by the heating of air near the Earth's surface, which is itself warmed by sunlight. The warmed air parcels become buoyant relative to their surroundings and rise. A second mechanism for lifting depends on the forced ascent of air by horizontal pressure gradient forces. Regardless of the lifting mechanism, the altitude at which the supersaturation condition is achieved in the rising air parcel and cloud begins to form is the lifted condensation level (LCL).

Chapter Contents:

  • 1.1 The formation of clouds
  • 1.2 Local conditions necessary for thunderclouds
  • 1.3 The gross charge structure of thunderclouds
  • 1.4 Sprite-producing thunderclouds: mesoscale convective systems
  • 1.5 Geographical variability of thunderclouds
  • 1.5.1 Environmental controls
  • 1.5.2 Tropical thunderstorms
  • 1.5.3 Midlatitude thunderstorms
  • 1.5.4 Winter thunderstorms
  • References

Inspec keywords: atmospheric pressure; thunderstorms; scattering; condensation; sunlight; atmospheric humidity; atmospheric temperature; ice; clouds

Other keywords: LCL; cool water vapour; locally supersaturated air; sunlight; visible light wavelengths; subsaturated air parcel lifting process; Earth atmosphere cloud; Earth surface air heating; lifted condensation level; horizontal pressure gradient forces; warmed air parcels; thundercloud charge structure; supersaturation condition altitude; lifting mechanism; selective scattering; ice crystals; cloud condensation nuclei abundance; liquid particle; water droplets; rising air parcel; air forced ascent; cloud colour; solid particle; thundercloud geographical variation; cloud white appearance; adiabatic expansion

Subjects: Temperature of the lower atmosphere; Cloud physics; Atmospheric storms; Sunlight and atmospheric radiation; Water in the atmosphere (humidity, clouds, evaporation, precipitation)

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Charge structure and geographical variation of thunderclouds, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/books/po/pbpo069e/PBPO069E_ch1-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/books/po/pbpo069e/PBPO069E_ch1-2.gif

Related content

content/books/10.1049/pbpo069e_ch1
pub_keyword,iet_inspecKeyword,pub_concept
6
6
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address