Attachment of lightning flashes to grounded structures

Attachment of lightning flashes to grounded structures

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A grounded structure can interact with a lightning flash in two different ways. It can interact with either a downward or an upward lightning flash. The initiation of a downward lightning flash takes place in the cloud, whereas in the case of upward lightning flash, the point of initiation is usually at the tip of a tall structure. In other words, upward lightning flashes are created by the grounded structure itself. In this chapter, a brief description of various models used to study the lightning attachment is given together with some of their predictions.

Chapter Contents:

  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Striking distance
  • 20.3 Leader inception models
  • 20.3.1 Critical radius and critical streamer length concepts
  • 20.3.2 Rizk's generalized leader inception equation
  • 20.3.3 Lalande's stabilization field equation
  • 20.3.4 Leader inception model of Becerra and Cooray (SLIM)
  • 20.4 Leader progression and attachment models
  • 20.5 The potential of the stepped leader channel and the striking distance
  • 20.5.1 Armstrong and Whitehead
  • 20.5.2 Leader potential extracted from the charge neutralized by the return stroke
  • 20.5.3 Striking distance based on the leader tip potential
  • 20.6 Comparison of EGM against SLIM
  • 20.7 Points where more investigations are needed
  • 20.7.1 Orientation of the stepped leader
  • 20.7.2 The orientation of the connecting leader
  • 20.7.3 The connection between the leader potential and the return stroke current
  • 20.7.4 Inclination of the leader channel
  • 20.7.5 Main assumptions of SLIM
  • 20.8 Concluding remarks
  • References

Inspec keywords: clouds; lightning

Other keywords: upward lightning flash; cloud; grounded structures; downward lightning flash; lightning flash attachment

Subjects: Cloud physics; Atmospheric electricity

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