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Minimally disruptive medicine: how mHealth strategies can reduce the work of diabetes care

Minimally disruptive medicine: how mHealth strategies can reduce the work of diabetes care

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Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease in which the body has trouble regulating blood sugar due to a lack of insulin production by the pancreas (Type I diabetes) or by a resistance to the insulin that is produced (Type II diabetes). Over time, elevated levels of blood sugar (glucose) can cause serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves. The global prevalence of diabetes is currently 8.5% (up from 4.8% in 1980) or 422 million adults worldwide and is expected to continue increasing as the world's population ages. In the United States, the prevalence is slightly higher: 30.3 million people (or 9.4% of the general population) had diabetes in 2015, but this is a problem that gets worse with age: an estimated 25.2% of adults over 65 in the United States are diabetic. European rates of Type II diabetes range from 2.4% in Moldova to 14.9% in Turkey, with an estimated rate of undiagnosed diabetes in high-income European countries (Denmark, Finland, and the United Kingdom) of a staggering 36.6%. Although the rate of new diagnoses remains steady in higher income countries, diabetes prevalence continues to rise in low- and middle-income countries. Unfortunately, the WHO reports that 1.5 million deaths were directly attributable to diabetes in 2012, and a further 2.2 million deaths were caused by higher than optimal blood glucose, which caused death by cardiovascular and other related diseases. As a result, diabetes is one of four priority noncommunicable diseases targeted for action by world leaders.

Chapter Contents:

  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.1.1 The coming tsunami: global rates of diabetes are reaching epidemic proportions
  • 7.1.2 High blood sugar leads to vascular damage
  • 7.1.3 Overmanagement and underdiagnosis: two opposites of the spectrum in the global management of diabetes
  • 7.1.4 Minimally disruptive medicine and mobile healthcare
  • 7.2 The diabetic lower extremity
  • 7.2.1 The case for remote monitoring
  • 7.2.1.1 An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure
  • 7.2.1.2 mHealth can be cost-effective in the diabetic lower extremity
  • 7.2.1.3 We must reach outside urban centers
  • 7.3 Our approach
  • 7.3.1 Methemoglobin can distinguish viable from nonviable tissue: computer modeling
  • 7.3.2 Translating our technology into the diabetic lower extremity
  • 7.4 MIMOSA in practice and overcoming barriers to mHealth adoption
  • 7.5 Change is on the horizon
  • 7.6 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: kidney; eye; blood vessels; medical computing; diseases; patient care; blood; sugar; mobile computing; cardiovascular system

Other keywords: cardiovascular diseases; minimally disruptive medicine; heart; kidneys; nerves; Type I diabetes; glucose; insulin production; blood vessels; blood sugar; chronic metabolic disease; mHealth strategies; pancreas; diabetes care; Type II diabetes; noncommunicable diseases; eyes

Subjects: Patient care and treatment; Biology and medical computing; Patient care and treatment; Ubiquitous and pervasive computing

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