Techniques for speckle tracking: block matching

Techniques for speckle tracking: block matching

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The clinical need for in vivo motion and deformation quantification and the many applications have been clearly explained in the previous chapters. In general, we distinguish between (1) quasi-static elastography: speckle tracking during compression or palpation of tissue to estimate local strains and elasticity and (2) dynamic elastography, where speckle tracking on actively deforming tissue such as the heart, arteries and skeletal muscles is performed. The third class, where motion of the tissue is induced with a vibrational device or a push by the transducer (ARFI, shear wave imaging) is not dealt with in this chapter. We will elaborate on a sub-set of speckle tracking and/or strain imaging techniques, which are based on the so-called block-matching techniques. Hence, Doppler-based techniques will not be discussed.

Chapter Contents:

  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.1.1 Strain imaging: an overview
  • 14.1.2 Terminology
  • 14.2 1-D speckle tracking and strain imaging
  • 14.2.1 Data types
  • 14.2.2 Similarity measures
  • 14.2.3 Sub-sample displacement estimation
  • 14.2.4 Window size
  • 14.2.5 De-correlation
  • 14.2.6 Re-correlation
  • Regularization of cross-correlation functions
  • Iterative approaches
  • Sub-sample alignment
  • Strain-based stretching
  • 14.3 Multi-dimensional displacement estimation
  • 14.3.1 From line to block matching
  • 14.3.2 Multi-dimensional cross-correlation
  • 14.3.3 2-D window sizes
  • Re-correlation approaches
  • 14.4 Resolution
  • 14.5 Regularization
  • 14.6 Strain estimation
  • 14.6.1 Strain measures
  • Strain vs. strain rate: the need for tracking
  • 14.6.2 Strain vs. local strain
  • 14.7 In vivo challenges
  • 14.7.1 Mismatch between US propagation direction and tissue strain
  • 14.7.2 Anistropy and non-linearity
  • 14.8 Elastography
  • References

Inspec keywords: medical image processing; biomechanics; blood vessels; elasticity; cardiology; deformation; image matching; compressibility; muscle; object tracking; biomedical ultrasonics

Other keywords: elasticity; tissue palpation; skeletal muscles; in vivo motion; local strains; speckle tracking; heart; deformation quantification; arteries; strain imaging techniques; actively deforming tissue; quasistatic elastography; block matching; dynamic elastography; tissue compression

Subjects: Sonic and ultrasonic applications; Image recognition; Computer vision and image processing techniques; Biology and medical computing; Sonic and ultrasonic radiation (medical uses); Patient diagnostic methods and instrumentation; Sonic and ultrasonic radiation (biomedical imaging/measurement); Mechanical properties of tissues and organs

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