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## Introduction to speckle tracking in ultrasound video

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Ultrasound imaging is widely used in the medical field since the modality is relatively cheap and can be applied nearly in all clinical environments due to its portability. Static images have been used to assess anatomical and geometrical features, but one of the unique features of ultrasound is its capability of examining dynamic events. In addition to anatomical and echogenicity features, ultrasound can provide information regarding movement of tissues. Quantification of tissue motion will be of interest in fundamental and clinical questions; from the motion, the deformability of the tissue can be quantified. When this deformation is induced by a force applied onto the tissue, the deformation is associated with its mechanical structure and composition. But it can also reveal functional behaviour when the deformation is representing the function of the targeted tissue. There is a vast amount of ultrasound techniques for the detection of tissue motion (functional imaging). For many years, M-mode imaging played an important role in evaluation of rapid motions because of its high sampling rate. Other techniques based on the Doppler effect or applying block-matching algorithms for tracking tissue motion are available. Nowadays, as a result of rapid developments in ultrafast ultrasound imaging, techniques are available that permit fast and complex motions to be measured more accurately. This chapter will introduce the most commonly used techniques in clinical practice and will provide an overview of past and current developments in functional ultrasound imaging.

Chapter Contents:

• 12.1 M-mode
• 12.1.1 Methods
• 12.1.2 Applications
• 12.2 Doppler imaging
• 12.2.1 Method
• 12.2.2 Limitations
• 12.3 Tissue Doppler imaging
• 12.3.1 Method
• 12.3.2 Applications
• 12.3.3 TDI-based strain (rate) imaging
• 12.3.4 Limitations
• 12.4 Ultrasound elastography
• 12.4.1 Method
• 12.4.2 Speckle tracking
• 12.4.3 RF-based block matching
• 12.4.4 Lateral displacements
• 12.4.5 Developments
• 12.4.6 Applications in breast
• 12.4.7 Other applications
• References

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