Two innovative energy efficient IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sub-layer protocols with packet concatenation: employing RTS/CTS and multichannel scheduled channel polling

Two innovative energy efficient IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sub-layer protocols with packet concatenation: employing RTS/CTS and multichannel scheduled channel polling

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This chapter proposes an IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) sub-layer performance enhancement by employing request-to-send/clear-to-send (RTS/CTS) combined with packet concatenation. The results have shown that the use of the RTS/CTS mechanism improves channel efficiency by decreasing the deferral time before transmitting a data packet. In addition, the sensor block acknowledgement (ACK) (BACK) MAC (SBACK-MAC) protocol has been proposed that allows the aggregation of several ACK responses in one special BACK response packet. Two different solutions are briefly considered. The first one considers the SBACK-MAC protocol in the presence of BACK request (concatenation) while the second one considers the SBACK-MAC in the absence of BACK request (piggyback). The throughput and delay performance is mathematically derived under both ideal conditions (a channel environment with no transmission errors) and nonideal conditions (a channel environment with transmission errors). An analytical model is proposed, capable of taking into account the retransmission (RTX) delays and the maximum number of backoff stages. The simulation results successfully validate analytical model. Besides, an innovative efficient multichannel MAC (McMAC) protocol, based on SCP-MAC, has also been proposed, the so-called multichannel scheduled channel polling MAC (MC-SCP-MAC) protocol. The influential range (IR) concept, denial channel list (which considers the degradation metric of each slot channel), extra resolution (ER) phase algorithm and frame capture effect are explored to achieve the maximum performance in terms of delivery ratio and energy consumption. It is shown that MC-SCP-MAC outperforms SCP-MAC and multichannel lightweight medium access control (MC-LMAC) in denser scenarios, with improved throughput fairness. Considering theIR concept reduces the redundancy level in the network facilitating to reduce the energy consumption whilst decreasing the latency. The conclusions from this research reveal the importance of an appropriate design for the MAC protocol for the desired wireless body sensor network (WBSN) application.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC enhancements
  • 8.2.1 Analysis of the overhead in IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sub-layer
  • 8.2.2 Discovery-addition state
  • Choice of channels
  • Required number of slot channels per frame
  • 8.2.3 Enhanced-two phase contention window mechanism
  • Frame and channel structure
  • 8.2.4 Adoption of the nonbeacon-enabled mode
  • 8.3 IEEE 802.15.4 in the presence and absence of RTS/CTS
  • 8.4 MC-SCP-MAC protocol
  • 8.4.1 Influential range concept
  • 8.4.2 Extra resolution phase decision algorithm (concatenation)
  • 8.4.3 Node channel rendezvous scheduler
  • Predictive wake-up mechanism
  • 8.5 SBACK-MAC protocol
  • 8.5.1 Unicast frame concatenation
  • 8.5.2 Burst transmissions in the presence of block ACK request
  • 8.5.3 Burst transmissions in the absence of block ACK request
  • 8.6 Throughput and energy consumption
  • 8.6.1 Maximum average throughput in the presence and absence of BACK request for the DSSS PHY layer
  • 8.6.2 Impact of periodic traffic and exponential patterns in the overall performance with and without IR
  • High density of nodes
  • 8.6.3 Energy consumption for IEEE 802.15.4 in the presence and absence of RTS/CTS and SBACK-MAC
  • 8.6.4 Energy performance on the number of source nodes from MC-SCP-MAC with and without IR and discussion
  • 8.7 Conclusions and discussion
  • 8.8 Suggestions for future work
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Inspec keywords: energy consumption; energy conservation; body sensor networks; telecommunication scheduling; wireless channels; telecommunication power management; Zigbee; access protocols

Other keywords: IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control sub-layer performance enhancement; clear-to-send mechanism; MC-SCP-MAC; wireless body sensor network application; innovative efficient multichannel MAC protocol; sensor block acknowledgement MAC protocol; denial channel list; slot channel; BACK request; channel environment; innovative energy efficient IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sublayer protocols; transmission errors; RTS mechanism; special BACK response packet; scheduled channel polling MAC protocol; CTS mechanism; channel efficiency; packet concatenation; data packet; throughput; request-to-send mechanism; energy consumption; delay performance; SBACK-MAC protocol; maximum performance; ACK responses

Subjects: Protocols; Wireless sensor networks; Biomedical communication

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