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A reliable wearable system for BAN applications with a high number of sensors and high data rate

A reliable wearable system for BAN applications with a high number of sensors and high data rate

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This chapter addresses a wearable body area network (BAN) system for both medical and nonmedical applications, especially those including a large number of sensors at BAN scale (<250), embedded in textile and with high data rate (<9+9 MHz) communication demands. The overall system includes an on-body central processing module (CPM) connected to a computer via a wireless link and a wearable sensor network. Due to the fixed location of the sensors and the possibility of using conductive yarns in textiles, a wired network has been considered for the wearable components. Employing conductive yarns instead of using wireless links provides a more reliable communication, higher data rates and throughput, and less power consumption. The wearable unit is composed of two types of circuits, the sensor nodes (SNs) and a base station (BS), all connected to each other with conductive yarns forming a mesh topology with the base node at the center. The reliability analysis shows that communication in a multi-hop connection of sensors in mesh topology is more reliable than in the conventional star topology. From the standpoint of the network, each SN is a four port router capable of handling packets from destination nodes to the BS. The end-to-end communication uses packet switching for packet delivery from SNs to the BS or in the reverse direction, or between SNs. The communication module has been implemented in a low power field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and a microcontroller. The maximum data rate of the system is 9+9 Mbps while supporting tens of sensors, which is much more than current BAN applications need. The suitability of the proposed system for utilization in real applications has been demonstrated experimentally.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Related work
  • 3.3 Wearable system architecture
  • 3.3.1 Characterization of the conductive yarns
  • 3.3.2 Intra-network
  • 3.3.3 Network layers
  • 3.3.3.1 Physical layer
  • 3.3.3.2 MAC layer
  • 3.3.3.3 Network layer
  • 3.3.3.4 Middleware and application layers
  • 3.3.4 SNs, BS and CPM circuits
  • 3.3.5 FPGA-based implementation of the physical and MAC layers
  • 3.3.5.1 Internal bus architecture
  • 3.3.5.2 Signal detector
  • 3.3.5.3 Transmitter module
  • 3.3.5.4 Receiver module
  • 3.4 Experimental results
  • 3.4.1 Communication at the MAC layer
  • 3.4.2 Routing
  • 3.4.3 Power consumption
  • 3.5 The SRMCF routing protocol for sensor networks
  • 3.5.1 Supported message types
  • 3.5.2 Network setup
  • 3.5.2.1 Determination of node cost value
  • 3.5.2.2 Routing table creation
  • 3.5.3 Link and node failure recovery
  • 3.5.4 Analytical comparison of SRMCF and MCF protocols
  • 3.5.5 Packet header length
  • 3.5.6 Routing table size
  • 3.5.7 Simulation and experimental results
  • 3.5.7.1 Routing table and packet header size
  • 3.5.7.2 Throughput in wired networks
  • 3.5.7.3 Network of sensors on textile
  • 3.6 Conclusion
  • References

Inspec keywords: packet switching; radio links; telecommunication network routing; telecommunication network topology; telecommunication network reliability; biomedical electronics; body sensor networks; textiles; low-power electronics; field programmable gate arrays; yarn

Other keywords: port router; mesh topology; high data rate; power consumption; conventional star topology; wearable sensor network; multihop connection; destination nodes; CPM; medical applications; on-body central processing module; wired network; wireless link; wearable body area network system; bit rate 9.0 Mbit/s; wearable components; sensor nodes; FPGA; reliable wearable system; textile; communication module; packet switching; conductive yarns; high data rate communication demands; low power field programmable gate arrays; packet delivery; BAN applications; end-to-end communication; microcontroller; base station; nonmedical applications

Subjects: Wireless sensor networks; Communication switching; Logic circuits; Biomedical communication; Communication network design, planning and routing; Reliability

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