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## Smartphone-based blood pressure monitoring for falls risk assessment: techniques and technologies

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Smart patient monitoring systems have rapidly evolved during the past two decades and have the potential to improve current patient care and medical staffworkflow. With advanced sensors, sophisticated hardware and fast-growing wireless communication technologies, there are enormous opportunities for ubiquitous solutions in all areas of healthcare, especially patient monitoring. Current methods of non-invasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This approach is non-continuous, time delayed, and might cause patient discomfort. We aim to monitor and measure cuff-less and continuous blood pressure using a smartphone. Cuff-less approach enables continuous blood pressure monitoring capabilities and is particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important factors to assess risk of falls in older adults. A smartphone application was developed to collect PhotoPlethysmoGram (PPG) waveform and electrocardiogram (ECG) in order to calculate pulse transit time (PTT). The user's systolic blood pressure is calculated using the PPT and precise optimisation model. The proposed application can be integrated with our developed falls risk assessment algorithm for inpatient older adults. This study proposes a novel approach of continuous blood pressure monitoring using cuff-less method that can be employed for prevention of inpatient falls using smartphone.

Chapter Contents:

• Abstract
• Keywords
• 10.1 Introduction
• 10.2 Mobile healthcare applications
• 10.2.1 Smartphone applications in the secondary care
• 10.2.2 Application of tablets and smartphones in monitoring of daily activities of hospitalised patients
• 10.3 Design and methodology of the smart monitoring application
• 10.3.1 Medical device and wireless connectivity
• 10.3.2 Continuous blood pressure monitoring applications
• 10.3.3 System calibration and optimization
• 10.3.4 Vital sign monitoring system design and modelling
• 10.3.5 Falls risk assessment
• 10.4 Application development and system performance
• 10.4.1 ECG and PPG data handling
• 10.4.2 Cloud-based data storage and data security
• 10.4.3 User-centric approach
• 10.5 Discussion and conclusion
• References

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