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## The ionosphere

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Ionospheric physics has many different aspects and this chapter is aligned to provide a foundation of knowledge for the radio systems user. The aim has been to give the reader an impression of the interacting atmospheric and space science that is needed to gain a full understanding of the composition and forces making up this complicated region of our environment. It is also important to gain an understanding of the measurement techniques. With these aspects in mind, it becomes clear that obtaining enough information to undertake reliable ionospheric now-casting and forecasting for radio system planning is a significant task that will continue to challenge us into the future.

Chapter Contents:

• 11.1 Introduction
• 11.2 Morphology of the ionosphere
• 11.3 Instrumentation
• 11.3.1 Ionosonde
• 11.3.5 Other techniques
• 11.4 Ionospheric models
• 11.5 Composition and physics
• 11.5.1 Chapman theory
• 11.5.2 Neutral winds and electric fields
• 11.6 Disturbances arising from solar storms
• 11.7 Summary
• Acknowledgement
• Bibliography

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