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## Propagation in rain and clouds

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In this chapter, we consider the effect of atmospheric water particles on the radio wave. Water particles are found in air when they precipitate out from water vapour and are therefore found mainly in the troposphere, at higher levels they exist in a solid form as ice and at lower levels both ice and liquid is found. The scientific term for these particles is hydrometeors; this classification includes many forms with the most familiar being cloud, fog, rain, snow, hail and graupel. There are other forms, including, for example, needle-shaped ice and supercooled droplets of liquid water as well as intermediate forms, particularly melting particles in clouds. Each form has its own characteristic impact on radiowave propagation. The effect of hydrometeors on the passage of an electromagnetic wave depends very strongly on the size of the particle relative to the wavelength as well as the type and number of particles present. Hydrometeors can cause attenuation, scattering and depolarisation. In many cases, there will be several classes of hydrometeors occurring simultaneously in a region of precipitation and a link may pass through several different regions of precipitation.

Chapter Contents:

• 10.1 Introduction
• 10.1.1 Rain
• 10.1.2 Snow
• 10.1.3 Hail and graupel
• 10.1.4 Clouds
• 10.2 The melting layer
• 10.3 Precipitation variation with time
• 10.4 Precipitation variation over an area
• 10.5 The effect of hydrometeors on radiowaves
• 10.5.1 Refractive index
• 10.5.2 The Rayleigh scattering region
• 10.5.3 The Mie and optical scattering regions
• 10.5.4 The small-scale structure of rain
• 10.6 Attenuation effects
• 10.7 Depolarisation effects
• 10.8 Cross-polar distribution (XPD) models
• 10.9 Canting angles
• 10.10 Rain scatter
• 10.11 ITU propagation models
• 10.12 Example - simplified calculation of the distribution of rain fading for terrestrial link
• References

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