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## The effects of ionospheric tilts

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When the properties of an ionospheric layer vary with latitude and longitude, we can speak of gradients in the ionospheric parameters. The layer can be described, for brevity, as tilted, but it must be borne in mind that a thick layer of variable properties does not necessarily behave in the same way as a tilted mirror. With this proviso, we now consider the effects of tilts on DF measurements, possible ways in which tilt corrections might be applied and possible ways of acquiring the necessary information about the ionosphere. The effective tilt of an ionospheric layer of finite thickness can vary with the depth of penetration of a ray into the layer and is therefore dependent on the frequency and elevation angle of the ray, as well as the gradients of various ionospheric parameters.

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