Envelope tracking techniques

Envelope tracking techniques

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The growing demand for high data rate cellular systems has pushed the adoption of 4G/5G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) which uses high peak-to-average power (PAPR) modulation schemes. 5G will bring high data capacity and low latency using the sub-6 GHz and mm-wave spectrum. The increased adoption of powerful worldwide smart phones has been in part possible due to increase of CMOS technology in lower feature nodes as FinFET 7 nm/14 nm. This has made possible the adoption of “old” techniques such as envelope tracking (ET) into smart phones. The ET technique was mentioned back in 1952 by Leonard R. Kahn who introduced a related technique, envelope elimination and restoration (EER). Envelope tracking improves the linearity and efficiency RF for power amplifiers, typically the most power-hungry components in a wireless transmitter. With explosive band proliferation as well as the use of carrier aggregation (CA) and multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques, the research area of improving the cost, size, and the performance of the RF transmit solution is very active.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Envelope tracking technique
  • 3.2 Envelope tracking for cellular LTE FDD and TDD
  • 3.3 Power amplifier under envelope tracking operation
  • 3.4 Envelope tracking systems
  • 3.5 Envelope tracking circuitry
  • 3.6 Envelope tracking for high power
  • 3.7 Local ET linearization
  • 3.8 Multilevel supply envelope tracking
  • 3.9 Envelope tracking calibration
  • 3.10 Envelope tracking noise
  • References

Inspec keywords: Long Term Evolution; CMOS integrated circuits; smart phones; 5G mobile communication; cellular radio; MMIC power amplifiers; radio transmitters; millimetre wave power amplifiers; field effect MIMIC; field effect MMIC

Other keywords: carrier aggregation; digital signal processing; FinFET; CMOS technology; 5G systems; Long-Term Evolution; RF power amplifier; RF transmit solution; smartphones; envelope tracking; high data rate cellular systems; MIMO techniques; multiple input multiple output; high peak-to-average power modulation; digital calibration

Subjects: CMOS integrated circuits; Mobile radio systems; Telephone stations; Microwave integrated circuits; Amplifiers

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