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Hardware approaches for media and information protection and authentication

Hardware approaches for media and information protection and authentication

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Technology scaling has allowed us to design high-performance devices with a lowpower consumption. The advent of IoT has increased the versatility of data collection and there are many different ways of collecting and transferring data over the Internet. The data that is being collected is also in different forms, that is, text, images, videos, and audios. When they are shared, for a legit use, attackers can break the security and use them for illegible purposes or claim ownership to sell them commercially. This has been the trend lately where many counterfeit products are appearing in the market. This section discusses the digital watermarking, different schemes of digital watermarking, and how a media object can be secured using a watermark. They are also not completely resistant to attacks and measures need to be taken to secure the content that is being watermarked. The chapter also presents different issues with the watermark implementations, attacks and countermeasures to those attacks on watermarking. Section 11.1 presents a broad overview of the IP protection. Section 11.2 discusses the generic overview and components of any watermark system. Section 11.3 summarizes various types of watermarks. Section 11.4 discusses various applications of watermarking. Section 11.5 presents desired characteristics of watermarks. Sections 11.6 discusses the technical challenges of the watermarking. Section 11.7 discusses hardware-based watermarking systems available in the current literature. Section 11.8 discusses about watermarking in smart vehicles. Section 11.9 discusses about medical signal authentication. Section 11.10 highlights side-channel information leakage and its countermeasures. Section 11.11 outlines various forms of attacks on watermarks and watermarking systems. Section 11.12 presents the difficulties involved in making use of them in practice.

Chapter Contents:

  • 11.1 IP Protection—a broad overview
  • 11.1.1 Digital rights management
  • 11.1.2 Copyright protection of multimedia—a brief history
  • 11.1.3 Hardware versus media protection
  • 11.2 General framework for copyright protection
  • 11.2.1 The encoder
  • 11.2.2 The decoder
  • 11.2.3 The comparator
  • 11.3 Types of digital watermarks
  • 11.3.1 Spatial versus frequency domain watermarking
  • 11.3.2 Based on multimedia objects
  • 11.3.3 Based on human perception
  • 11.3.4 From applications point of view
  • 11.3.5 Based on embedding techniques
  • 11.3.6 Hardware-based watermarking systems
  • 11.4 Applications of digital watermarks
  • 11.4.1 Copyright protection
  • 11.4.2 Ownership assertion
  • 11.4.3 Authentication and integrity verification
  • 11.4.4 Fingerprinting
  • 11.4.5 Usage control
  • 11.4.6 Broadcast monitoring
  • 11.4.7 Content labeling
  • 11.4.8 Misappropriation detection
  • 11.4.9 Anti-counterfeiting
  • 11.4.10 UAV safety
  • 11.4.11 Medical signals authentication
  • 11.5 Desired characteristics of watermarks
  • 11.5.1 Perceptibility
  • 11.5.2 Robustness
  • 11.5.3 Tamper resistance
  • 11.5.4 Bit rate
  • 11.5.5 Modifiability, multiplicity, cascadability, and orthogonality
  • 11.5.6 Scalability
  • 11.5.7 Unambiguity and universality
  • 11.5.8 Pixel alteration and human intervention
  • 11.5.9 Reliability
  • 11.5.10 Blindness
  • 11.5.11 Security
  • 11.5.12 Real-time operation
  • 11.5.13 Cost and complexity
  • 11.5.14 Energy consumption
  • 11.5.15 Integrability
  • 11.5.16 Characteristics specific to a watermark
  • 11.5.16.1 Visible watermark
  • 11.5.16.2 Invisible-robust watermark
  • 11.5.16.3 Invisible-fragile watermark
  • 11.5.16.4 Video watermark
  • 11.5.16.5 Watermarking for broadcasting applications
  • 11.5.16.6 Desired characteristics of hardware-based watermarking systems
  • 11.6 Technical challenges for watermarking
  • 11.6.1 Properties of visual signals
  • 11.6.1.1 Nonstationarity
  • 11.6.1.2 Periodicity
  • 11.6.1.3 Power spectral density
  • 11.6.1.4 Properties of color signals
  • 11.6.2 Properties of the human visual system
  • 11.6.2.1 Brightness sensitivity
  • 11.6.2.2 Frequency sensitivity
  • 11.6.2.3 Texture sensitivity
  • 11.6.2.4 JND and minimally noticeable distortion
  • 11.6.3 How much watermark signal to add and where?
  • 11.6.4 Spread spectrum communications
  • 11.7 Hardware-based approaches for watermarking
  • 11.7.1 Image watermarking hardware systems
  • 11.7.1.1 Invisible-robust wavelet domain VLSI architecture
  • 11.7.1.2 Invisible-robust DCT domain chip
  • 11.7.1.3 Invisible-fragile spatial domain chip
  • 11.7.1.4 Invisible-robust-fragile spatial domain chip
  • 11.7.1.5 Invisible-robust wavelet domain module
  • 11.7.1.6 Invisible-robust spatial domain module
  • 11.7.1.7 Visible spatial domain chip
  • 11.7.1.8 Visible wavelet domain chip
  • 11.7.1.9 Low-power chip with DCT domain-invisible-robust and visible functionalities
  • 11.7.2 Video watermarking hardware systems
  • 11.7.2.1 Invisible-robust spatial domain module
  • 11.7.2.2 Invisible-robust spatial domain chip
  • 11.7.2.3 Invisible-robust fractal domain module
  • 11.7.2.4 Invisible-robust wavelet domain chip
  • 11.7.2.5 Visible watermarking hardware
  • 11.7.3 Secure better portable graphics (SBPG)
  • 11.7.4 Trust cam
  • 11.8 Dynamic watermarking in smart car or UAV
  • 11.9 Medical signals authentication
  • 11.10 Side-channel information leakage attacks and countermeasures
  • 11.10.1 An encryption hardware
  • 11.10.2 Side-channel analysis attacks
  • 11.10.3 Side-channel attack countermeasures
  • 11.11 Attacks on watermarks and watermarking systems
  • 11.11.1 Removal and interference attacks
  • 11.11.2 Geometric attacks
  • 11.11.3 Cryptographic attacks
  • 11.11.4 Protocol attacks
  • 11.12 Limitations of watermarks and watermarking
  • 11.13 Conclusion
  • 11.14 Exercises
  • References

Inspec keywords: image coding; image watermarking; Internet of Things; telecommunication security; Internet; message authentication; power aware computing; telecommunication computing

Other keywords: data collection; watermarking systems; media protection; Internet; IoT; digital watermarking; IP protection; information protection; low power consumption; authentication

Subjects: Image and video coding; Communications computing; Electrical/electronic equipment (energy utilisation); Computer communications; Other computer networks; Performance evaluation and testing; Computer vision and image processing techniques; Data security

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