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## Magnetism and electromagnetism

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Magnet is a piece of iron (or steel, alloy. ..) that has the ability to attract another metal object. Permanent magnet is a magnet that retains its magnetism over a long period of time after it is removed from a magnetic field. Magnetism is the attraction or repulsion properties of a magnet. A magnet has two areas of strongest force, called poles. Every magnet has a North and South Pole (N and S). The basic law of magnet: Like poles repel, unlike poles attract. Magnetic field is a place near a magnet or a moving electric charge where magnetic properties are produced (an invisible area of magnetism produced by moving the electric charge). Electromagnetic force is a force between charged objects around their electric and magnetic fields. Magnetic field lines (the lines of force) around a magnet describe the directions of the magnetic field (they can be plotted with iron filings and paper). Outside: the magnetic field lines travel from the North Pole (N) to the South Pole (S). Inside: from the South Pole to the North Pole.

Chapter Contents:

• 8.1 The magnetism field
• 8.1.1 Magnetism
• 8.1.2 Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density
• 8.1.3 Domain theory of magnetism
• 8.2 Electromagnetism
• 8.2.1 Charging and electric field
• 8.2.2 Electromagnetism
• 8.3 Electromagnetic characteristics of materials
• 8.3.1 Permeability and reluctance
• 8.3.2 Ohm's law for magnetic circuits
• 8.4 Magnetic hysteresis
• 8.4.1 Magnetic field intensity
• 8.4.2 Magnetic hysteresis
• Summary
• Practice problems

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