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Microscopy of defects in semiconductors

Microscopy of defects in semiconductors

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In this chapter, the authors discuss microscopy techniques that can be useful in addressing defects in semiconductors. They focus on three main families: scanning probe microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They first address the basic principles of the selected microscopy techniques In discussions of image formation, they elucidate the mechanisms by which defects are typically imaged in each technique. Then, in the latter part of the chapter, they describe some key examples of the application of microscopy to semiconductor materials, addressing both point and extended defects and both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) materials.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Basic principles of the microscopy techniques
  • 8.2.1 Scanning probe microscopy
  • 8.2.1.1 Atomic force microscopy
  • 8.2.1.2 Electrical characterisation techniques in AFM
  • 8.2.1.3 Scanning tunnelling microscopy
  • 8.2.2 Scanning electron microscopy
  • 8.2.2.1 Brief introduction to SEM
  • 8.2.2.2 Electron channelling contrast imaging
  • 8.2.2.3 Electron backscatter diffraction
  • 8.2.2.4 Cathodoluminescence
  • 8.2.2.5 Electron beam-induced current
  • 8.2.2.6 Energy-and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
  • 8.2.3 Transmission electron microscopy
  • 8.2.3.1 Brief introduction to transmission electron microscopy
  • 8.2.3.2 Techniques for diffraction contrast imaging of defects – bright field, dark field, weak beam dark field
  • 8.2.3.3 Techniques for compositional analysis near defects – high-angle annular dark-field STEM, EDX
  • 8.2.3.4 Techniques for high-resolution imaging of defects – high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy
  • 8.3 Examples of the application of microscopy to semiconductor materials
  • 8.3.1 Dislocation densities and Burgers vectors in GaN
  • 8.3.1.1 Motivation for the application of microscopy to study dislocation types and densities in GaN
  • 8.3.1.2 AFM methods for dislocation density quantification
  • 8.3.1.3 SEM methods for dislocation density quantification
  • 8.3.1.4 TEM methods for dislocation density quantitation
  • 8.3.1.5 Intercomparison of the various methods
  • 8.3.2 Imaging of the impact of dislocations on materials properties
  • 8.3.2.1 The interaction of dislocations with doping
  • 8.3.2.2 Combining ECCI and CL to investigate the influence of defects on light emission
  • 8.3.3 A multi-microscopy example: structure, properties and interactions of dislocations in InGaN
  • 8.3.3.1 Practical aspects
  • 8.3.3.2 Results
  • 8.3.4 Imaging defects in 2D materials
  • 8.3.4.1 Addressing the electrical properties of defects in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides by scanning probe microscopy
  • 8.3.4.2 ECCI examination of graphene nucleation on C-face silicon carbide
  • 8.3.4.3 Dislocation and point defect identification in h-BN by transmission electron microscopy and future outlook using machine learning
  • 8.4 Conclusions and outlook
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Inspec keywords: semiconductors; transmission electron microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; point defects; scanning tunnelling microscopy; extended defects; atomic force microscopy

Other keywords: scanning electron microscopy; image formation; point defects; AFM; transmission electron microscopy; scanning probe microscopy; STM; extended defects; semiconductors; three-dimensional materials; two-dimensional materials

Subjects: Electron microscopy determinations of structures; Stacking faults, stacking fault tetrahedra and other planar or extended defects; Colour centres; Interstitials and vacancies; Scanning probe microscopy determinations of structures; Other point defects

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