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The role of muons in semiconductor research

The role of muons in semiconductor research

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The aim of this chapter is to provide an introduction and overview of using muons to study defects in semiconductors for an audience with a background in material science. First is a general tutorial to relevant models and discussion of the muon-based techniques that have been important to the semiconductor field. The latter portion of this chapter highlights results from selected studies on semiconductors to demonstrate and describe some contributions that muon spin research (SR) techniques have made to the semiconductor community in recent years.

Chapter Contents:

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Muon spin research (SR): the techniques
  • 5.2.1 General principles
  • 5.2.2 Polarisation functions
  • 5.2.3 Transverse field SR
  • 5.2.4 Longitudinal field SR
  • 5.2.5 Zero-field SR
  • 5.2.6 Resonance-based SR techniques
  • 5.2.6.1 AC field-driven resonance (RF-SR)
  • 5.2.6.2 Avoided level-crossing resonance (ALC or LCR)
  • 5.2.6.3 Quadrupolar level-crossing resonance (QLCR)
  • 5.2.7 Low-energy muons (LEM or LE-SR)
  • 5.2.8 Illumination and muon spectroscopy of excited states
  • 5.3 Putting muons to use in semiconductors
  • 5.3.1 Muonium states
  • 5.3.2 Identifying muonium centres
  • 5.3.3 Processes and dynamics involving muonium centres
  • 5.3.3.1 Transitions between neutral and charged muonium
  • 5.3.3.2 Muonium in motion
  • 5.3.3.3 Two-state bidirectional transition
  • 5.3.4 Measuring donor and acceptor levels
  • 5.3.5 Effects of carrier concentrations
  • 5.4 Select examples of SR contributions to the field
  • 5.4.1 Group-IV
  • 5.4.2 Group III–V
  • 5.4.3 Group II–VI
  • 5.4.4 Group II–IV–V2 chalcopyrites
  • 5.4.5 Oxides
  • 5.5 Final thoughts
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Inspec keywords: defect states; semiconductors; muon probes

Other keywords: semiconductor defect; muon spin research; muon-based technique; material science; semiconductor research

Subjects: Muon spin rotation and relaxation in condensed matter; Impurity and defect levels

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