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## Magnetic resonance methods

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Characterisation and Control of Defects in Semiconductors — Recommend this title to your library

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In this chapter, we will focus on the study by EPR of point defects in semiconductor materials. Indeed, impurities, vacancies, anti -sites and complexes of them, in a diamagnetic material, may exhibit a local electronic reconstruction favoring unpaired electrons, and consequently, such defects have a nonzero electon spin. Of course, point defects may exist in an S = 0 state and then be EPR silent. Nevertheless, in semiconductors, most of the point defects have several charge states in the gap, and generally, each of them corresponds to a different spin state. Changing the defect charge state by electrical polarization or by light irradiation is then an efficient mean to reveal and detect the defects by EPR.

Chapter Contents:

• 4.1 Electron spin resonance spectroscopies
• 4.1.1 What is EPR used for?
• 4.1.2 Spin Hamiltonian formalism
• 4.1.2.1 Zero-field splitting
• 4.1.3 Hyperfine interactions
• 4.1.4 Resonance
• 4.1.4.1 Selection rules
• 4.1.5 Transition probability: relaxation phenomena
• 4.1.6 Experimental setup
• 4.1.6.1 Choice of microwave frequency
• 4.1.7 Electron nuclear double resonance
• 4.1.8 Pulsed spectroscopies
• 4.1.9 Optically detected magnetic resonance, electrically detected magnetic resonance
• 4.2 Illustrative examples: structural and chemical control
• 4.2.1 The SiC/oxide interface defects
• 4.2.1.1 Energy level position
• 4.2.1.2 Passivation
• 4.2.2 The N dumbbell in GaN
• 4.3 Examples: electrical and optical activities
• 4.3.1 P-Type doping of GaN
• 4.3.2 Origin of the residual conductivity of Ga2O3
• 4.3.3 SiC defects as quantum bits
• 4.4 Summary and outlook
• References

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