Magnetic resonance methods

Magnetic resonance methods

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In this chapter, we will focus on the study by EPR of point defects in semiconductor materials. Indeed, impurities, vacancies, anti -sites and complexes of them, in a diamagnetic material, may exhibit a local electronic reconstruction favoring unpaired electrons, and consequently, such defects have a nonzero electon spin. Of course, point defects may exist in an S = 0 state and then be EPR silent. Nevertheless, in semiconductors, most of the point defects have several charge states in the gap, and generally, each of them corresponds to a different spin state. Changing the defect charge state by electrical polarization or by light irradiation is then an efficient mean to reveal and detect the defects by EPR.

Chapter Contents:

  • 4.1 Electron spin resonance spectroscopies
  • 4.1.1 What is EPR used for?
  • 4.1.2 Spin Hamiltonian formalism
  • Zero-field splitting
  • 4.1.3 Hyperfine interactions
  • 4.1.4 Resonance
  • Selection rules
  • 4.1.5 Transition probability: relaxation phenomena
  • 4.1.6 Experimental setup
  • Choice of microwave frequency
  • 4.1.7 Electron nuclear double resonance
  • 4.1.8 Pulsed spectroscopies
  • 4.1.9 Optically detected magnetic resonance, electrically detected magnetic resonance
  • 4.2 Illustrative examples: structural and chemical control
  • 4.2.1 The SiC/oxide interface defects
  • Energy level position
  • Passivation
  • 4.2.2 The N dumbbell in GaN
  • 4.3 Examples: electrical and optical activities
  • 4.3.1 P-Type doping of GaN
  • 4.3.2 Origin of the residual conductivity of Ga2O3
  • 4.3.3 SiC defects as quantum bits
  • 4.4 Summary and outlook
  • References

Inspec keywords: magnetic semiconductors; vacancies (crystal); paramagnetic resonance; impurities; antisite defects; diamagnetic materials; defect states

Other keywords: defect charge states; light irradiation; electrical polarization; semiconductor materials; magnetic resonance methods; vacancies; diamagnetic material; spin state; antisites; point defects; EPR; impurities; local electronic reconstruction

Subjects: EPR of other ions and impurities; Other point defects; Interstitials and vacancies; Magnetic semiconductors; Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients

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