Ion-beam modification of semiconductors

Ion-beam modification of semiconductors

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In this chapter, we give an overview of the basic physics and experimental method behind the conventional ion-beam modification of semiconductors. In particular, we describe the basic understanding of the keV ion implantation process used for doping Si and the fascinating amount of materials physics involved in the path from the initial implantation to the dopant activation. We also describe two recent developments related to the physics of implantation: the mechanisms of surface ripple formation and time-resolved experiments used to shed new light on defect migration and interaction processes.

Chapter Contents:

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Theoretical and experimental background
  • 10.2.1 Theory of ion stopping and energy deposition
  • 10.2.2 Basics of ion implantation experiments
  • 10.3 Damage production and annealing
  • 10.3.1 Low-fluence primary damage
  • 10.3.2 Defect migration and interaction
  • 10.3.3 High-fluence damage overlap and amorphization
  • 10.3.4 Recrystallization of amorphous state
  • 10.3.5 Defect evolution during recrystallization and dopant activation
  • 10.4 Ripple formation on semiconductors
  • 10.4.1 Experimental background
  • 10.4.2 Theoretical models
  • 10.5 Time-resolved experiments to probe defect evolution
  • 10.5.1 Dynamic annealing
  • 10.5.2 Traditional dose-rate effect experiments
  • 10.5.3 Pulsed-ion-beam method
  • Measurement of defect relaxation time constants
  • Measurement of defect diffusion lengths
  • Measurements of activation energies and cascade density effects
  • 10.5.4 Comparison of radiation defect dynamics in different semiconductors
  • 10.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Inspec keywords: ion beam effects; silicon; semiconductor doping; ion implantation; elemental semiconductors

Other keywords: materials physics; keV ion implantation process; semiconductors; time-resolved experiments; defect migration; surface ripple formation; Si; dopant activation

Subjects: Ion beam effects; Doping and implantation of impurities; Semiconductor doping; Elemental semiconductors; Solid surface structure

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