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Characterizing electrically active defects by transient capacitance spectroscopy

Characterizing electrically active defects by transient capacitance spectroscopy

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In this chapter, characterization of electrically active defects is discussed and transient capacitance measurement techniques are addressed. The chapter starts by introducing the main properties describing the electrical activity of a defect, before techniques to measure these properties using thermal and optical emission are discussed. Key techniques based on measuring capacitance transients are reviewed, with particular emphasis on DLTS, including how DLTS can be utilized for direct measurements of capture cross sections and defect profiles. The latter part of the chapter shows examples of use, where defect studies in silicon is chosen as a well established material where most of the defect levels are identified, but where fundamental knowledge of the defects can still be gained. Defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) is also discussed and chosen as a less studied material where direct identification of the origin of the defect levels remains an important challenge.

Chapter Contents:

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Characteristics of electrically active defect levels
  • 1.3 Junction spectroscopic techniques for characterizing deep-level defects
  • 1.3.1 Deep-level transient spectroscopy
  • 1.3.1.1 DLTS profiling
  • 1.3.1.2 Measuring capture cross section
  • 1.3.2 Variations of capacitance spectroscopic techniques
  • 1.3.2.1 Laplace-DLTS
  • 1.3.2.2 Junction DLTS
  • 1.3.2.3 Optical DLTS (ODLTS)
  • 1.3.2.4 Minority carrier transient spectroscopy (MCTS)
  • 1.3.3 Deep-level optical spectroscopy
  • 1.4 Examples: characterizing electrically active defects in semiconductors
  • 1.4.1 Irradiation-induced defect complexes and vacancy migration in silicon
  • 1.4.1.1 Vacancy-related defects and the migration of the mono-vacancy
  • 1.4.2 Electrically active defects in zinc oxide and the involvement of hydrogen
  • 1.4.2.1 E2(Ec–0.20 eV)—an iron-related defect level
  • 1.4.2.2 E3 (Ec–0.30 eV)—a hydrogen-related defect level
  • 1.4.2.3 E4 (Ec–0.57 eV)—an oxygen vacancy-related defect level
  • 1.5 Extending junction spectroscopic techniques beyond traditional methodology
  • 1.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Inspec keywords: silicon; deep levels; elemental semiconductors; zinc compounds; deep level transient spectroscopy; II-VI semiconductors

Other keywords: DLTS; thermal emission; electrically active defects; capacitance transients; defect levels; optical emission; transient capacitance spectroscopy; defect profiles

Subjects: Impurity and defect levels

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