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Advanced device characterization techniques

Advanced device characterization techniques

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In this chapter the conventional electrical characterization techniques are reviewed. This includes the extraction of basic electrical parameters, such as threshold voltage, parasitic components, effective electrical dimensions, and measurement of secondorder effects, such as self-heating and parasitic tunneling currents. The device degradation and reliability is reviewed based on different techniques, such as BTI, for instance. Other advanced mechanisms related to softand hard-breakdown (HBD) are reviewed, including very specific phenomena like percolation and filamentary conduction, which may also serve as a reference for potential nanowire-like transport. As an alternative characterization technique approach, the use of a magnetic field combined with conventional electrical characterization techniques is introduced. This magneto-electrical characterization technique allows the study of local effects across small sections in the order of a few nanometers. This technique is very useful for mapping the conductance properties at the atomistic level, and could be very useful in optimizing the design of futuristic atomic-scale devices.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Conventional electrical characterization and modeling techniques
  • 3.1.1 Measurement and extraction of basic electrical parameters
  • 3.1.2 Parasitic effects and de-embedding under nonconventional bias conditions
  • 3.2 Reliability, degradation, lifetime prediction, and failure
  • 3.2.1 Bias temperature instability of high-k materials beyond HfO2
  • 3.2.2 Hot carriers in nanoscale devices
  • 3.2.2.1 Device scaling into the nanotechnology regime
  • 3.2.2.2 Hot carriers
  • 3.2.2.3 The lucky electron model
  • 3.2.2.4 The energy-driven model
  • 3.2.2.5 Short-range carrier-carrier scattering effects
  • 3.2.2.6 Justification of energy-driven model for ISG damage rates
  • 3.2.2.7 Temperature dependence
  • 3.2.2.8 Self-heating effects
  • 3.2.2.9 Progression of hot carrier effects in the nanoscale FET regime
  • 3.2.2.10 Intrinsic variation considerations
  • 3.2.3 Filamentary conduction in thin dielectric films
  • 3.2.3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2.3.2 Oxide breakdown phenomenology
  • 3.2.3.3 Modeling of filamentary conduction
  • 3.2.3.4 Reversible dielectric breakdown
  • 3.3 Alternative approaches for device characterization including magnetic fields
  • 3.3.1 Classical magneto transport in FET-based devices
  • 3.3.2 Magneto-tunneling and nonhomogeneous magneto conductance
  • 3.3.3 Conductance properties under constant and time-dependent magnetic fields
  • 3.4 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Inspec keywords: semiconductor device measurement; semiconductor device reliability; semiconductor device models; semiconductor device breakdown; tunnelling

Other keywords: magneto-electrical characterization technique; threshold voltage; device degradation; hard-breakdown; second-order effects; electrical characterization techniques; parasitic tunneling currents; self-heating; parasitic components; reliability; effective electrical dimensions; BTI

Subjects: Electric and magnetic variables measurement; Reliability; Semiconductor device modelling, equivalent circuits, design and testing

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