Invisible forces of suspension

Invisible forces of suspension

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A brief history of electrical science. To levitate in a vacuum an object, which is heavier than air in defiance of the force of gravity here on the surface of Earth, scientists and engineers mainly enlist forces familiar to practitioners of electrical science. These forces are represented by the electrostatic field, the magnetostatic field and electromagnetic fields (including optical manifestations). Examples of 'levitation', using acoustic pressure, have also been reported, but this is pseudo-levitation, like aerodynamic lift, since it cannot be procured without the presence of a gas. Any other forms of 'levitation' are purely in the deceived or deluded minds of the beholders. In this chapter, we will engage only with the electrical forces, whose provenance and fundamental nature will be elucidated below.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 A brief history of electrical science
  • 3.1.1 Establishing the laws
  • 3.1.2 Evolution of electromagnetic levitation
  • 3.2 Magnetic levitation and suspension forces
  • 3.2.1 Lorentz force
  • 3.2.2 Practical examples
  • 3.2.3 Magnetic stored energy
  • 3.2.4 Ferrites
  • 3.2.5 Hysteresis
  • 3.2.6 Magnetic stress
  • 3.3 Electric suspension force
  • 3.3.1 Energy stored
  • 3.3.2 Force between plates of an air-spaced capacitor
  • 3.3.3 Suspension criteria
  • 3.4 Lorentz effect
  • 3.4.1 Induced current
  • 3.4.2 Eddy current force
  • 3.5 Levitation by electromagnetic pressure
  • 3.5.1 'Free space' waves
  • 3.5.2 Pressure calculation
  • 3.6 Summary
  • 3.7 References

Inspec keywords: electromagnetic fields; magnetic levitation; gravity; suspensions

Other keywords: force of gravity; acoustic pressure; magnetostatic field; Earth; pseudo-levitation; electromagnetic fields; electrical forces; optical manifestations; electrical science

Subjects: Classical electromagnetism

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