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Wireless sensor network for landslide early warning and monitoring

Wireless sensor network for landslide early warning and monitoring

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In this chapter, a wireless sensor network (WSN) application aimed for monitoring and warning about imminent landslides is presented. It consists of multiple complex measurement nodes (MNs) connected in a radio communication network spread over the area to be monitored. Each node is able to measure two types of parameters: relative soil layers displacement and pore water pressure, each of them mounted at different soil depths. The sensors devoted to measure the above parameters are of original conception and feature very good metrological qualities, especially in terms of displacement sensing sensitivity, which is as low as 1 mm per year. The measurement node structure can be tailored according to the underground layer structure and can include several displacement and pore water pressure sensors that are connected together in a wired local network structure with serial communication. The WSN is coordinated by a gateway, which has the role of general administration of the network resources, data collection and storage and information transmission to the cloud, from where a central server accesses and downloads the data. The whole structure of such a network is detailed in this chapter, starting with sensors description, continuing with the network architecture, communication protocols, data structure, alarms generation, data analysis, power management and ending with the user interface and some results obtained by in-field deploying of the network.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Landslides: phenomenon, triggering mechanisms and monitoring techniques
  • 8.2 WSN setup
  • 8.2.1 Network architecture
  • 8.2.2 Hierarchical levels
  • 8.3 Communication protocols within the landslide monitoring WSN
  • 8.3.1 Protocol implementation for an end node
  • 8.3.2 Protocol implementation for a router node
  • 8.3.3 Protocol implementation for the coordinator
  • 8.4 Hardware components of the WSN
  • 8.4.1 Measurement node structure
  • 8.4.2 Measurement point
  • 8.4.3 Highly sensitive strain gauges
  • 8.4.3.1 Principle of operation
  • 8.4.3.2 Construction details and characteristics
  • 8.4.3.3 Signal processing unit
  • 8.4.4 Pore water pressure sensor
  • 8.4.5 Processing and communication module
  • 8.4.6 Coordinator
  • 8.5 Considerations regarding the power consumption
  • 8.5.1 Power consumption at MP level
  • 8.5.2 Power consumption at PCM level
  • 8.6 In-field deployment and data presentation
  • 8.6.1 One year recordings using the WSN
  • 8.6.2 Graphic user interface
  • 8.7 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: data analysis; pressure sensors; soil; wireless sensor networks; network servers

Other keywords: wireless sensor network application; data structure; network architecture; network resources; displacement sensing sensitivity; good metrological qualities; serial communication; communication protocols; underground layer structure; different soil depths; pore water pressure sensors; landslide early warning; WSN; original conception; radio communication network; relative soil layers displacement; sensors description; multiple complex measurement nodes; measurement node structure; imminent landslides; wired local network structure

Subjects: Mobile radio systems; Instrumentation and techniques for geophysical, hydrospheric and lower atmosphere research; Other topics in statistics; Wireless sensor networks; Sensing devices and transducers; Radio links and equipment; Computer communications

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