PSO-based implementation of smart antennas for secure localisation

PSO-based implementation of smart antennas for secure localisation

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This chapter presents a flexible approach towards the design and implementation of smart antennas using particle swarm optimisation technique. Effectiveness of this evolutionary algorithm has been justified here with its two-fold applications in solving complex antenna optimisation problems. Initially, the design optimisation of a low-profile rectangular microstrip patch antenna on IE3D software has been demonstrated. Finally, adaptive beamforming in smart antennas to produce beam pattern with pre-specified side-lobes level and nulls at various interference directions has been described. The patch antenna was fabricated on a printed circuit board material of RT/duroid® 5880 laminates with dielectric constant of 2.4 and substrate thickness of 1.5875 mm. The important antenna parameters such as gain, voltage standing wave ratio, directivity, return loss, etc. were measured with vector network analyser and antenna test bench. The adaptive beamforming circuit was realised with finite state machine modelling on Virtex4 field programmable gate array board. Its performance was also verified with hardware level fixed point simulation on beamforming accuracy and computational overheads underboth of additive white Gaussian noise and Rayleigh fading channel conditions. This antenna system is suitable for secure localisation applications under harsh radio environment in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).

Chapter Contents:

  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Related works
  • 11.3 Overview of the proposed scheme
  • 11.3.1 Security challenges in wireless localisation system
  • Network architectures and protocols
  • Attack scenario
  • Radio environment
  • 11.3.2 Smart antennas preliminaries
  • 11.3.3 PSO algorithm outline
  • 11.3.4 PSO-based smart antenna design methodology
  • Optimisation of microstrip patch antenna
  • Development of adaptive beamforming algorithm
  • 11.4 Hardware realisation of smart antennas
  • 11.4.1 PCB fabrication of the optimised patch antenna
  • 11.4.2 Implementation of adaptive beamformer on FPGA devices
  • 11.5 System performance analysis
  • 11.5.1 Simulation and measurement on optimised patch antenna
  • Simulation results
  • Experimental results
  • 11.5.2 Simulation and experimentation on adaptive beamformer
  • Simulation results
  • Experimental results
  • 11.6 Conclusions and future scope
  • References

Inspec keywords: AWGN channels; particle swarm optimisation; array signal processing; antenna radiation patterns; printed circuits; finite state machines; Rayleigh channels; microstrip antenna arrays; network analysers; wireless sensor networks; field programmable gate arrays; adaptive antenna arrays; antenna testing

Other keywords: antenna system; complex antenna optimisation problems; pre-specified side-lobes level; smart antennas; Virtex4 field programmable gate array board; particle swarm optimisation technique; PSO-based implementation; adaptive beamforming circuit; antenna parameters; antenna test bench; printed circuit board material; design optimisation; secure localisation applications; low-profile rectangular microstrip patch antenna

Subjects: Antenna arrays; Optimisation techniques; Wireless sensor networks; Signal processing and detection

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