Inspec keywords: video signal processing; regression analysis; surgery; medical image processing; image classification; neural nets; learning (artificial intelligence); image resolution

Other keywords: tracking process; multiple tools; temporal context updating; vivo experiments; coarse CNN; tool tip area; ex vivo datasets; low frame rate; current convolution neural network-based methods; classification network; regression CNN; surgical tool tracking; fine locations; multitool tracking; fine CNN; fine method; regression network; coarse locations; spatial context updating; speed

Subjects: Other topics in statistics; Neural computing techniques; Other topics in statistics; Computer vision and image processing techniques; Optical, image and video signal processing