Inspec keywords: lithium compounds; electric vehicle charging; secondary cells; PI control; optimal control; battery powered vehicles

Other keywords: battery discharging; voltage 3.7 V to 3.87 V; series connected lithium-ion battery cells; discontinuous current mode PI control techniques; bidirectional fly-back converter; PI controller parameter optimisation; CEC model; real-world electric vehicle energy storage system; pulse width modulation switching signal; battery charging; optimal algorithm; electric vehicle applications; proportional-integral control technique; particle swarm optimisation; charge equalisation controller

Subjects: Transportation; Secondary cells; Optimal control; Control of electric power systems; Road-traffic system control