Inspec keywords: learning (artificial intelligence); inference mechanisms; face recognition; neural nets; image classification; computer aided instruction; visual databases; emotion recognition

Other keywords: κ coefficient; convolutional neural network-based algorithm; data augmentation algorithms; video clip database; inference performance; facial expressions; online learning; adaptive data augmentation algorithm; common academic emotions; image database; 1274 video clips; external coders; automatic academic emotion inference; spontaneous facial expression database; learning effect; students; inference algorithm

Subjects: Optical, image and video signal processing; Image recognition; Computer-aided instruction; Knowledge engineering techniques; Other topics in statistics; Spatial and pictorial databases; Computer vision and image processing techniques