Inspec keywords: bone; medical diagnostic computing; neural nets; diseases; pattern classification; sensitivity analysis; patient diagnosis; orthopaedics; optimisation

Other keywords: mild bone fractures; osteoporotic patient; hybrid classifier model; skeletal regions; osteoporosis diagnosis; osteoporosis classification; monarch butterfly optimisation-based artificial neural network classifier; Wilcoxon signed-rank test; clinical methods; bone mineral density; BMD values; monarch butterfly optimisation algorithm; lumbar spine dataset; menopause; receiver operating characteristics analysis; femoral neck dataset; 10-fold cross-validation method; life threatening disease

Subjects: Optimisation techniques; Optimisation techniques; Patient diagnostic methods and instrumentation; Biology and medical computing; Neural computing techniques; Biomedical measurement and imaging