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Welcome to IET Digital Library

The IET Digital Library holds more than 190,000 technical papers from 1994 onwards for all IET journals, magazines, books, conference publications and seminar digests, the IET's member magazine Engineering & Technology, plus seminar digests and conference publications. Find out more about the Digital Library.

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Latest Books

image of Proof-of-Stake for Blockchain Networks: Fundamentals, challenges and approaches
  • Proof-of-Stake for Blockchain Networks: Fundamentals, challenges and approaches
  • A consensus mechanism is the core component of a blockchain network, which ensures that every participant agrees on the state of the network in trustless environments. Until now, current blockchain networks have been using the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism, which has serious limitations such as huge energy consumption, low transaction processing capabilities, and centralization and scalability issues. To overcome these problems, a new consensus mechanism entitled proof-of-stake (PoS) has been developed. PoS has many advantages, including negligible energy consumption and very low consensus delay. Ethereum (the largest decentralized global software platform to create secured digital technology powered by blockchain technology and the blockchain of choice globally for all developers and enterprises) has just switched from PoW to PoS. As a result, this mechanism is expected to become a cutting-edge technology for future blockchain networks.

    This book provides a comprehensive discussion of the PoS consensus mechanism for blockchain networks. Starting with an overview of blockchain technology and consensus mechanisms, including basic concepts and network architecture, the book provides a review of the PoS consensus mechanism, including PoS consensus security and PoS performance and scalability issues.

    Proof-of-Stake for Blockchain Networks: Fundamentals, challenges and approaches is a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and postgraduate students who are interested in advanced PoS consensus mechanisms, as well as developers and entrepreneurs who are interested in developing applications using the PoS consensus mechanism.

image of Mobility as a Service: Its development, deployment, and future
  • Mobility as a Service: Its development, deployment, and future
  • Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is a much-talked about term in the transportation industry and in transport policy. The goal of MaaS is a shift away from personally-owned modes of transportation and towards mobility solutions that are consumed as a service. Such solutions are typically enabled by digital technologies and platforms. MaaS systems might combine transportation services from public and private transportation providers, like train and carsharing services, through a unified portal to create and manage journeys, which users can pay for with a single account. MaaS offers travellers mobility solutions based on their travel needs.

    The purpose of this book is to take stock of recent trends and developments in MaaS, and so provide readers with an overview of progress, challenges, opportunities, and the likely future direction of the field. The book begins by addressing the history of MaaS and its defining principles, then explores enabling technologies and business models. The different opportunities and challenges of implementing MaaS are examined for urban and rural areas and for regional travel. The challenge of integration is discussed, followed by the role of MaaS in different spheres of transportation, including mass transit, shared transport, demand responsive transport, and active travel. The role of mobility hubs is also reviewed. The final chapters of the book cover policy and regulation, and the likely future outlook and next steps for MaaS.

    The book is written by two knowledgeable consultants with substantial experience in delivering and supporting future mobility projects. The authors have drawn deeply on their expertise and connections in the field to provide a wealth of case-studies, which illustrate real-world applications of MaaS.

    Covering the principles, enabling technologies and business models behind MaaS, this book provides a systematic and thorough overview of the field for researchers, consultants, industry professionals, transport operators and policy makers.

image of Empowering Smart Cities through Community-Centred Public Private Partnerships and Innovations
  • Empowering Smart Cities through Community-Centred Public Private Partnerships and Innovations
  • Cities are at the heart of the biggest challenges facing humanity - from the cost-of-living crisis to the COVID-19 pandemic, to climate change to inequality and social injustice. Local governments around the world are facing increased expectations to support the transition to a more just and sustainable society and are under pressure to do more with fewer resources. Rapid urbanization is creating significant pressure on cities to expand and improve housing and infrastructure, and improve social equity, health and quality of life, all while fostering a robust economy that can provide good jobs for all. Nonetheless, cities are also our best hope for the future and remain at the heart of economic growth, innovation and job creation.

    Tackling multifaceted issues like climate change, digitalization and innovation, economic revitalization and social inclusion cannot be led by cities acting on their own. Cities must work with different actors in the community - researchers, private sector, community leaders, households and even national governments - to drive and deliver on this agenda. This book explores how cities and local stakeholders can come together to share knowledge and expertise, bring their diverse perspectives and co-create solutions to complex urban challenges.

    Empowering Smart Cities through Community-Centred Public Private Partnerships and Innovations presents eight case studies from around the world that demonstrate unique forms of collaboration between local governments, businesses, start-ups, academia, and citizens. A Community-Centred Public Private Partnership or CP3 is defined as an alliance of diverse stakeholders that responds to complex urban challenges like digital transformation and climate change, empowers the locality, shares risk and responsibility among partners, and leverages resources to work towards the vision for a public good.

    The book is intended for local government authorities, researchers, business leaders, policy-makers and urban professionals who are passionate about working locally and collaboratively to shape more sustainable, resilient, innovative and inclusive cities.

image of Retro-reflective Beamforming Technique for Microwave Power Transmission
  • Retro-reflective Beamforming Technique for Microwave Power Transmission
  • Microwave power transmission technology, which is a sub-discipline of the wireless power transmission technology, aims to transmit electrical power without using wires/cables in the microwave frequency band. The retro-reflective beamforming technique has the potential to enable efficient and safe microwave power transmission, as it includes the following two technical elements. First, a directional microwave beam is generated as the carrier of wireless power. Second, the microwave power beam could be steered in real time toward mobile wireless power receiver(s). This book offers a comprehensive narrative of retro-reflective beamforming in the context of microwave power transmission.

    The book begins with an overview of wireless power transmission technology, microwave power transmission technology, and retro-reflective beamforming technique in its first chapter. Chapters 2 and 3 of the book provide in-depth descriptions of the theory and practical implementation of the retro-reflective beamforming technique for microwave power transmission. Commercial products of microwave power transmission are envisioned to emerge in three practical applications, including internet of things, space solar power, and wireless charging in fully-enclosed space. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of the book discuss applying the retro-reflective beamforming technique to accomplish efficient microwave power transmission in these three practical applications, respectively. Abundant numerical and experimental examples are provided throughout the book.

    Retro-reflective Beamforming Technique for Microwave Power Transmission is a valuable resource for the wireless power transmission community. It will be of particular interest to engineers and researchers in the fields of electromagnetics, antennas, and microwave engineering.

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image of Integral Equations for Real-Life Multiscale Electromagnetic Problems
  • Integral Equations for Real-Life Multiscale Electromagnetic Problems
  • Integral Equations for Real-Life Multiscale Electromagnetic Problems brings together and explains the main available approaches for the numerical solution of surface integral equations that can be used to analyse real-world multi-scale electromagnetic problems. In computational electromagnetics, formulations based on surface integral equations are currently the most commonly-used option for the analysis of electrically large and complex structures, but it is essential to have available state-of-the-art techniques to solve them in an efficient and accurate way.

    The book is organised into seven scientific chapters, which thoroughly and systematically explore these advanced techniques. Topics covered include: surface integral equation formulations; kernel-based fast factorization techniques; kernel-independent fast factorization methods for multiscale electromagnetic problems; domain decomposition method (DDM); multi-resolution preconditioner; Calderón preconditioners for electromagnetic integral equations; and decoupled potential integral equation. Finally, the editors share their conclusions and perspectives, and provide context on the important role of software simulation of electromagnetic phenomena in various engineering endeavours.

    Compiled and curated by two expert editors with more than 20 years' experience in computational electromagnetics, and with substantial experience in developing algorithms to numerically solve integral equations in the case of discretized real-life structures, this book is a valuable resource for any and all researchers working in the field of computational electromagnetics or on associated software and tools.

image of Darney's Circuit Theory and Modelling: Updated and extended for EMC/EMI
  • Darney's Circuit Theory and Modelling: Updated and extended for EMC/EMI
  • The equipotential earth is a fundamental requirement of circuit theory, because it dramatically reduces the complexity of the mathematics required to simulate a circuit. Unfortunately, in the real world, no such equipotential earth exists, nor can it ever do so, which means simulating a circuit to evaluate its electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI) is largely dependent on using the Maxwell equations. The Maxwell equations are inherently complex, however, and so have high processing power requirements and, as with all complex systems, there is a propensity to generate and magnify errors.

    Fortunately, the models provided in this book require far less processing power, as the mathematics required is far less complex than that of the Maxwell equations. These models are explained in a simple and straightforward manner, and can be used at the developmental stage of a project and redeployed in the testing stage before the manufacturing and product deployment stages are implemented.

    A review of the relationship of circuit theory with electromagnetic theory identifies a way of augmenting these analytical tools, and this enables circuit models to be developed to simulate all forms of EMI, thus effectively updating and extending circuit theory.

    The technique described in this book can be used to analyse all the mechanisms involved in the propagation of EMI. This approach avoids the need for endless debate on the topic of ground philosophy. Equally, it avoids the need to invoke the complexities of electromagnetic computation.

    The book is aimed at electrical and electronic design engineers and EMI/EMC design consultants.

image of Machine Learning in Medical Imaging and Computer Vision
  • Machine Learning in Medical Imaging and Computer Vision
  • Medical images can highlight differences between healthy tissue and unhealthy tissue and these images can then be assessed by a healthcare professional to identify the stage and spread of a disease so a treatment path can be established. With machine learning techniques becoming more prevalent in healthcare, algorithms can be trained to identify healthy or unhealthy tissues and quickly differentiate between the two. Statistical models can be used to process numerous images of the same type in a fraction of the time it would take a human to assess the same quantity, saving time and money in aiding practitioners in their assessment.

    This edited book discusses feature extraction processes, reviews deep learning methods for medical segmentation tasks, outlines optimisation algorithms and regularisation techniques, illustrates image classification and retrieval systems, and highlights text recognition tools, game theory, and the detection of misinformation for improving healthcare provision.

    Machine Learning in Medical Imaging and Computer Vision provides state of the art research on the integration of new and emerging technologies for the medical imaging processing and analysis fields. This book outlines future directions for increasing the efficiency of conventional imaging models to achieve better performance in diagnoses as well as in the characterization of complex pathological conditions.

    The book is aimed at a readership of researchers and scientists in both academia and industry in computer science and engineering, machine learning, image processing, and healthcare technologies and those in related fields.

image of Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain Technology in Modern Telehealth Systems
  • Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain Technology in Modern Telehealth Systems
  • The expansion of telehealth services is enabling healthcare professionals to consult, diagnose, advise or perform tasks remotely, enabling them to treat more patients in their own homes or consult on cases on the other side of the world. The security of sensitive user information is critical to effective and efficient delivery of healthcare services. Artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain technology are identified as key drivers of emerging telehealth systems, enabling efficient delivery of telehealth services to billions of patients globally. Specifically, AI facilitates the processing and analysis of complex telehealth data, and blockchain technology offers decentralised, transparent, traceable, reliable, trustful, and provable security to telehealth systems.

    This edited book reviews security and privacy issues in traditional telehealth systems and focuses on the technical considerations, potential opportunities and critical challenges currently inhibiting the adoption of AI and blockchain in telehealth systems. The book presents case studies which highlight critical lessons and considers the prospects and societal benefits of AI and blockchain, while providing suitable recommendations for designing future AI and blockchain-based telehealth systems.

    Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain Technology in Modern Telehealth Systems is suited to researchers and computer engineers working in healthcare delivery, telemedicine, cybersecurity, data science, AI/ML and those in related fields.

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