Indium phosphide: a semiconductor for microwave devices

Indium phosphide: a semiconductor for microwave devices

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Since 1970, InP has been developed as a material for microwave oscillators and amplifiers, with most interest to date being taken in transferred-electron devices. the physics of electron transport and of transferred-electron oscillators is reviewed; the features of greatest practical significance are the high potential oscillator efficiency set by the peak-to-valley ratio, which is approximately 3·5, of the velocity/field curve; studies of cathode-contact effects which have led to oscillator efficiencies over 20% and the observation of limited-space-charge-accumulation (l.s.a.) mode operation. Consideration is also given to other less developed InP microwave components, including transferred-electron small-signal amplifiers which have given noise measures of 8 dB at 15 GHz, and field-effect transistors for which encouraging preliminary results have been obtained.


    1. 1)
      • Microwave oscillations of current in III-V semiconductors
    2. 2)
      • Three-level oscillator: a new form of transferred-electron device
    3. 3)
      • High-field transport in gallium arsenide and indium phosphide
    4. 4)
      • Temperature dependence of the velocity/field characteristic of electrons in InP
    5. 5)
      • Comparison of the microwave velocity/field characteristics of n-type InP and n-type GaAs
    6. 6)
      • Microwave measurement of the velocity-field characteristic of n-type InP
    7. 7)
      • Microwave measurement of electron drift velocity in indium phosphide for electric fields up to 50kv/cm
    8. 8)
      • Measurement of the velocity-field characteristic of indium phosphide by the microwave absorption technique
    9. 9)
      • Velocity/field characteristic of n-type indium phosphide at 110 and 330 K
    10. 10)
      • Measurements of the velocity/field characteristic of indium phosphide
    11. 11)
      • Determination of the velocity/field characteristic for n-type indium phosphide from dipole-domain measurements
    12. 12)
      • Capacitative probe measurements of dipole domains in InP
    13. 13)
      • Temperature dependence of the subthreshold velocity/field characteristic for epitaxial InP
    14. 14)
      • Time response of the high field electron distribution function in GaAs
    15. 15)
      • A reappraisal of instabilities due to the transferred electron effect
    16. 16)
      • Overlength modes of InP transferred-electron devices
    17. 17)
      • Transit modes of InP transferred-electron devices
    18. 18)
      • Highefficiency microwave generation in InP
    19. 19)
      • Colliver, D.J., Gray, K.W., Jones, D., Rees, H.D., Gibbons, G., White, P.M.: `Cathode contact effects in InP transferred-electron oscillators', 30, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on GaAs and related compounds, 1972, Boulder, USA, p. 286–294
    20. 20)
      • Colliver, D.J., Prew, B.A., Rees, H.D.: `InP three level transferred electron devices', A2/3, Proceedings of the 1971 European Microwave Conference, 1971, Stockholm, Sweden
    21. 21)
      • The influence of boundary conditions on current instabilities in GaAs
    22. 22)
      • Transittime negative conductance in GaAs bulk-effect diodes
    23. 23)
      • High-effieincy InP transferred-electron oscillators
    24. 24)
      • InP microwave oscillators with 2-zone cathodes
    25. 25)
      • Gray, K.W., Pattison, J.E., Rees, H.D., Prew, B.A., Clarke, R.C., Irving, L.D.: `Current limiting contacts for InP transferred electron devices', Proceedings of the 5th biennial cornell electrical engineering conference, 1975, p. 215–224
    26. 26)
      • Brookbanks, D.M., Griffith, I., White, P.M.: `Integral heat sink contacts for c.w. indium phosphide transferred electron oscillators and amplifiers', Proceedings of conference on metal-semiconductor contacts, April 1974, Manchester, England, p. 116–122
    27. 27)
      • High efficiency c.w. operation of anomalous indium phosphide microwave oscillators
    28. 28)
      • Theory of negative conductance amplification and of Gunn instabilities in two-valley semiconductors
    29. 29)
      • Small-signal impedance of stable transferred-electron diodes
    30. 30)
      • Wideband performance of the injection-limited Gunn diode
    31. 31)
      • Theoretical characteristics of transferred-electron amplifiers
    32. 32)
      • Design and performance of transferred-electron amplifiers using distributed equalizer networks
    33. 33)
      • Low-noise wideband indium-phosphide transferred-electron amplifiers
    34. 34)
      • Noise performance of InP reflection amplifiers in Q band
    35. 35)
      • Corlett, R.M., Griffiths, I., Purcell, J.J.: `Indium phosphide CW transferred electron amplifiers', Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on GaAS and related compounds, September 1975, Deauville, France, p. 89–93
    36. 36)
      • Corlett, R.M., Griffiths, I., Purcell, J.J.: `A low noise indium phosphide reflection amplifier', Proceedings of the european microwave conference, September 1975, Hamburg, Germany, p. 695–698
    37. 37)
      • The impedance field method of noise calculation in active semiconductor devices, Quantum theory of atoms, moldecules, solid state
    38. 38)
      • Computer modelling of low-noise indium-phosphide amplifier
    39. 39)
      • Sitch, J.E., Robson, P.N.: `Noise measure of GaAs and InP transferred-electron amplifiers', Proceedings of the 4th european microwave conference, 1974, Montreux Switzerland, p. 232–236
    40. 40)
      • Twodimensional particle models in semiconductor-device analysis
    41. 41)
      • Frequency limits of GaAs and InP field-effect transistors
    42. 42)
      • InP Schottky-gate field effect transistors
    43. 43)
      • Mullin, J.B., Royle, A., Straughan, B.W.: `The preparation and electrical properties of InP crystals grown by liquid encapsulation', Proceedings of the International Symposium on GaAs and related compounds, 1970, Aachen, Germany, p. 41–49
    44. 44)
      • Semi-insulating properties of Fe-doped InP
    45. 45)
      • Crystal growth and properties of group IV doped indium phosphide
    46. 46)
      • Bardsley, W., Green, G.W., Holliday, C.H., Hurle, D.T.J., Joyce, G.C., MacEwan, W.R., Tufton, P.J.: `Automated Czochralski growth of III-V compounds', Proceedings of the 5th International Symposoum on GaAs and related compounds, 1974, Deauville, France, p. 355–361
    47. 47)
      • The preparation of high purity epitaxial InP
    48. 48)
      • Solution-grown epitaxial InP for high-efficiency circuit-controlled microwave oscillators
    49. 49)
      • Multilayer structures of epitaxial indium phosphide
    50. 50)
      • Ideal ohmic contacts to InP
    51. 51)
      • High-efficiency GaAs lo-hi-lo impatt devices by liquid phase epitaxy for X band
    52. 52)
      • Charge-limited domains in gallium-arsenide avalanche diodes
    53. 53)
      • High-efficiency p—n junction GaAs impatt devices
    54. 54)
      • Transferred electron photoemission from InP

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