http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com
1887

A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms

A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
£12.50
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Name:*
Email:*
Your details
Name:*
Email:*
Department:*
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
 
 
 
 
 
IET Renewable Power Generation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

This paper provides an overview of grid code technical requirements regarding the connection of large wind farms to the electric power systems. The grid codes examined are generally compiled by transmission system operators (TSOs) of countries or regions with high wind penetration and therefore incorporate the accumulated experience after several years of system operation at significant wind penetration levels. The paper focuses on the most important technical requirements for wind farms, included in most grid codes, such as active and reactive power regulation, voltage and frequency operating limits and wind farm behaviour during grid disturbances. The paper also includes a review of modern wind turbine technologies, regarding their capability of satisfying the requirements set by the codes, demonstrating that recent developments in wind turbine technology provide wind farms with stability and regulation capabilities directly comparable to those of conventional generating plants.

References

    1. 1)
      • I. De Alegría , J. Andreu , J. Martín , P. Ibañez , J. Villate , H. Camblong . Connection requirements for wind farms: a survey on technical requirements and regulation. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. , 8 , 1858 - 1872
    2. 2)
      • Erlich, I., Bachmann, U.: `Grid code requirements concerning connection and operation of wind turbines in Germany', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005, San Francisco.
    3. 3)
      • Erlich, I., Winter, W., Dittrich, A.: `Advanced grid requirements for the integration of wind turbines into the German transmission system', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2006, Montreal.
    4. 4)
      • A. Morales , X. Robe , J.L. Rodriguez-Amenedo , S. Arnalte , R. Zubiaur , Z. Torbado . Advanced grid requirements for the integration of wind farms into the spanish transmission system. IET Renew. Power Gener. , 1 , 47 - 59
    5. 5)
      • Fagan, E., Grimes, S., McArdle, J., Smith, P., Stronge, M.: `Grid code provisions for wind generators in Ireland', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005, San Francisco.
    6. 6)
      • Dudurych, I.M., Holly, M., Power, M.: `Integration of wind power generation in the Irish grid', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2006, Montreal.
    7. 7)
      • Bernard, S., Beaulieu, D., Trudel, G.: `Hydro-Québec grid code for wind farm interconnection', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005, San Francisco.
    8. 8)
      • Zavadil, R.M., Charles Smith, J.: `Status of wind-related US national and regional grid code activities', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005, San Francisco.
    9. 9)
      • R. Zavadil , N. Miller , A. Ellis , E. Muljadi . Making connections: wind generation challenges and progress. IEEE Power Energy , 6 , 26 - 37
    10. 10)
      • ‘New generation technologies and GB grid codes’. Report on Change Proposals to the Grid Codes in England & Wales and in Scotland, Sinclair Knight Merz, 2004.
    11. 11)
      • Chondrogiannis, S., Barnes, M., Aten, M., Cartwright, P.: `Modelling and GB grid code compliance studies of offshore wind farms with doubly-fed induction generators', Proc. Third IET Int. Conf. Power Electronics, Machines and Drives, 2006, Dublin.
    12. 12)
      • Christiansen, W., Johnsen, D.T.: `Analysis of requirements in selected grid codes', Technical Report, 2006, Section of Electric Power Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU).
    13. 13)
      • Matevosyan, J., Ackermann, T., Bolik, S., Söder, L.: `Comparison of international regulations for connection of wind turbines to the network', Proc. Nordic Wind Power Conf. (NPWC), 2004, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    14. 14)
      • T. Ackermann . (2005) Wind power in power systems.
    15. 15)
      • Iov, F., Hansen, A., Cutululis, N., Soerensen, P.: `A survey of interconnection requirements for wind power', Proc. Nordic Wind Power Conf. (NWPC), 2007, Roskilde, Denmark.
    16. 16)
      • K. Porter , D. Yen-Nakafuji , B. Morgenstern . A review of the international experience with integrating wind energy generation. Electr. J. , 8 , 48 - 59
    17. 17)
      • Iov, F., Hansen, A., Soerensen, P., Cutululis, N.: `Mapping of grid faults and grid codes', 2007, Technical report of the research project ‘Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine’, Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark.
    18. 18)
      • Schlabbach, J.: `Low voltage fault ride through criteria for grid connection of wind turbine generators', Proc. 5th Int. Conf. European Electricity Market, Lisbon, 2008.
    19. 19)
    20. 20)
      • V. Akhmatov , H. Knudsen . Large penetration of wind and dispersed generation into Danish power grid. Electr. Power Syst. Res. , 1228 - 1238
    21. 21)
      • Perez, P.S., Van Hertem, D., Driesen, J., Belmans, R.: `Wind power in the European Union: grid connection and regulatory issues', Proc. IEEE PES Power Systems Conf. Exposition (PSCE), 2006, Texas.
    22. 22)
      • (2006) Grid code – high and extra high voltage.
    23. 23)
      • (2008) Requirements for offshore grid connections in the E.ON Netz Network.
    24. 24)
      • (2008) The grid code, issue 3, rev. 24.
    25. 25)
      • (2007) Grid code–version 3.0.
    26. 26)
      • (2007) Nordic grid code.
    27. 27)
      • (2004) Grid connection of wind turbines to networks with voltages below 100 kV, Regulation TF 3.2.6.
    28. 28)
      • (2004) Grid connection of wind turbines to networks with voltages above 100 kV, Regulation TF 3.2.5.
    29. 29)
      • ‘Grid code for the local transmission system operator (Arrêté du Gouvernement wallon relatif à la révision du règlement technique pour la gestion du réseau de transport local d’électricité en Région wallonne et l'accès à celui-ci)'. Walloon Energy Commission (Commission Wallone pour l' Energie-CWaPE), Wallonia, Belgium, May 2007.
    30. 30)
      • (2006) Transmission provider technical requirements for the connection of power plants to the Hydro-Quebec transmission system.
    31. 31)
      • ‘CanWEA – Canadian grid code for wind development review and recommendations’. Document No. 11163/OR/01 B, Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., 2005.
    32. 32)
      • ‘Wind power facility technical requirements. Revision 0’. Alberta Electric System Operator, Canada, November 2004.
    33. 33)
      • (2005) Interconnection for wind energy, final rule.
    34. 34)
      • ‘Requisitos de respuesta frente a huecos de tension de las instalaciones de produccion de regimen especial, PO 12.3’. REE, Spain, November 2005.
    35. 35)
      • CEI 11/32, Appendice N.6–Normativa impianti di produzione eolica, February 2006 (draft).
    36. 36)
      • (2002) Affärsverket svenska kraftnäts föreskrifter om driftsäkerhetsteknisk utformning av produktionsanläggningar.
    37. 37)
      • (2004) Connection and dispatch guide.
    38. 38)
      • (2007) Design and operation of power systems with large amounts of wind power: state-of-the-art report.
    39. 39)
      • Erlich, I., Shewarega, F.: `Interaction of large wind power generation plants with the power system', Proc. IEEE Int. Power and Energy Conf., 2006, Kuala Lumpur.
    40. 40)
      • R. Pearmine , Y.H. Song , A. Chebbo . Influence of wind turbine behaviour on the primary frequency control of the British transmission grid. IET Renew. Power Energy , 2 , 142 - 150
    41. 41)
      • ‘Working group report’ (System operator–Transmission Owner Code (STC) Working Group on Offshore Electricity Transmission–February 2008).
    42. 42)
      • Joos, G.: `Review of grid codes', Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Integration of RE and DER, Brussels, 2004, Belgium.
    43. 43)
      • ‘Petitions for Rulemaking or, in the alternative, request for clarification of order 2003-A, and Request for Technical Conference of the American Wind Energy Association’ (American Wind Energy Association, USA, May 2005).
    44. 44)
      • Gomez, E., Alvaro Fuentes, J., Molina, A., Ruz, F., Jimenez, F.: `Results using different reactive power definitions for wind turbines submitted to voltage dips: application to the Spanish Grid Code', Proc. IEEE PES Power Systems Conf. Exposition (PSCE), 2006, Texas.
    45. 45)
      • Di Marzio, G., Eek, J., Tande, J., Fosso, O.: `Implication of grid code requirements on reactive power contribution and voltage control strategies for wind power integration', Proc. Int. Conf. Clean Electrical Power, 2007, Capri, Italy.
    46. 46)
      • S. Heier . (1998) Grid integration of wind energy conversion systems.
    47. 47)
      • H.M. El-Helw , S.B. Tennakoon . Evaluation of the suitability of a fixed speed wind turbine for large scale wind farms considering the new UK grid code. Renew. Energy , 1 - 12
    48. 48)
      • Molinas, M., Suul, J.A., Undeland, T.: `A simple method for analytical evaluation of LVRT in wind energy for induction generators with STATCOM or SVC', Proc. European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications, 2007, Aalborg, Denmark.
    49. 49)
      • M. Molinas , J.A. Suul , T. Undeland . Low voltage ride through of wind farms with cage generators: STATCOM versus SVC. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , 3 , 1104 - 1117
    50. 50)
      • Pourbeik, P., Koessler, R.J., Dickmander, D.L., Wong, W.: `Integration of large wind farms into utility grids (part 2–performance issues)', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2003, Toronto.
    51. 51)
      • Dittrich, A., Stoev, A.: `Comparison of fault ride-through strategies for wind turbines with DFIM generators', Proc. European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications, 2005, Dresden.
    52. 52)
      • Arbi, J., Slama-Belkhodja, I., Arnaltes Gomez, S.: `Control of a DFIG-based wind system in presence of large grid faults: analysis of voltage ride through capability', Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, 2007, Barcelona.
    53. 53)
      • Geniusz, A., Engelhardt, S.: `Optimised fault ride through performance for wind energy systems with doubly fed induction generator', Proc. European Wind Energy Conf. (EWEC), 2008, Brussels.
    54. 54)
      • Joos, G.: `Wind turbine generator low voltage ride through requirements and solutions', Proc. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting–Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008, Pittsburgh.
    55. 55)
      • A.H. Kasem , E.F. Ei-Saadany , H.H. Ei-Tamaly , M.A.A. Wahab . An improved fault ride-through strategy for doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbines. IET Renew. Power Gener. , 4 , 201 - 214
    56. 56)
      • Foster, S., Lie, Xu., Fox, B.: `Coordinated control and operation of DFIG and FSIG based wind farms', Proc. IEEE Power Tech., 2007, Lausanne.
    57. 57)
      • Niiranen, J.: `Experiences on voltage dip ride through factory testing of synchronous and doubly fed generator drives', European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications, 2005, Dresden.
    58. 58)
      • P.B. Eriksen , T. Ackermann , H. Abildgaard , P. Smith , W. Winter , J.M. Rodriguez Garcia . System operation with high wind penetration. IEEE Power Energy , 6 , 65 - 74
    59. 59)
      • Rahmat Ullah, N., Svensson, J., Karlsson, A.: `Comparing the fault response between a wind farm complying with the E.ON Netz code and that of classical generators', Proc. Nordic Wind Power Conf. (NWPC), 2007, Roskilde, Denmark.
    60. 60)
      • Michalke, G., Hansen, A., Hartkopf, T.: `Variable speed wind turbines–modelling, control and impact on power systems', Proc. European Wind Energy Conference (EWEC), 2008, Brussels.
    61. 61)
      • N. Rahmat Ullah , T. Thiringer , D. Karlsson . Voltage and transient stability support by wind farms complying with the E.ON Netz grid code. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. , 4 , 1647 - 1656
    62. 62)
      • N.R. Ullah , T. Thiringer , D. Karlsson . Temporary primary frequency control support by variable speed wind turbines – potential and applications. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. , 2 , 601 - 612
    63. 63)
      • G. Lalor , A. Mullane , M.O. Malley . Frequency control and wind turbine technologies. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. , 4 , 1905 - 1913
    64. 64)
      • , : `Wind turbine generator systems – Part 21: measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines', Committee Draft (CD), July 2007.
    65. 65)
      • Reidy, A., Watson, A.: `Comparison of VSC based HVDC and HVAC interconnections to a large offshore wind farm', Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005, San Francisco.
    66. 66)
      • De Leon, J.A.D., Kehrli, B., Zalav, A.: `How the Lake Bonney wind farm met ESCOSA's, NEMMCO's, and ElectraNet's rigorous interconnecting requirements', Proc. IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conf. Exposition, 2008, Chicago.
    67. 67)
      • Camm, E., Edwards, C.: `Reactive compensation systems for large wind farms', Proc. IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conf. Exposition, 2008, Chicago.
    68. 68)
      • Bublat, T., Gehlhaar, T.: `Comparison of high technical demands on grid connected wind turbines defined in international grid codes', Proc. European Wind Energy Conf. (EWEC), 2008, Brussels.
    69. 69)
      • ‘European grid code requirements for wind power generation’. EWEA Working Group on Grid Code Requirements–Position Paper, Brussels, February 2008.
    70. 70)
      • ‘Strategic research agenda/market deployment strategy: annex b’ (European Wind Energy Technology Platform, July 2008).
    71. 71)
      • ‘Wind power in the UCTE interconnected system’ (UCTE NetWork of experts on Wind Power, November 2004).
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1049/iet-rpg.2008.0070
Loading

Related content

content/journals/10.1049/iet-rpg.2008.0070
pub_keyword,iet_inspecKeyword,pub_concept
6
6
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address