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Application of μPMUs for adaptive protection of overcurrent relays in microgrids

Application of μPMUs for adaptive protection of overcurrent relays in microgrids

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This study proposes a new application of micro-phasor measurement units (µPMUs) for adaptive coordination of overcurrent relays in microgrids. Mis-coordination of overcurrent relays usually arising from the variation of relays fault current and it can cause damage to equipment of network and raise operating costs. Fault current injection and direction to microgrid are highly dependent on network uncertainties; therefore, fault current is affected by line and power plant outages. This study proposes an algorithm to detect these uncertainties in online operation. Then, microgrid overcurrent relays coordination is optimised again. Uncertainties are line and power plant outages in transmission network and microgrid side and two distinct methods are used for each. For online detection of uncertainties in the transmission side, it is assumed that a µPMU is installed between transmission network and microgrid point of common coupling; so, the topology changes such as line outage is detected by monitoring of Thevenin impedance estimation that is obtained by µPMU measurements. Uncertainties detection in a microgrid is done by signals that are sent by µPMUs and installed all over the microgrid. All data are gathered and analysed in phasor data concentrators and then overcurrent relays coordination is updated with such changes.

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