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Demand side flexibility schemes for facilitating the high penetration of residential distributed energy resources

Demand side flexibility schemes for facilitating the high penetration of residential distributed energy resources

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Presently, the penetration of residential distributed energy resources (DER) that produce (photovoltaics, wind generators) or consume (electric heat pumps, electric vehicles) electric power, is continuously increasing in an uncoordinated fashion. If the appropriate steps are not taken to ensure their smooth integration, issues such as violations of voltage and thermal limits occur, especially at higher DER penetrations. This study investigates the impact of each DER on low-voltage (LV) networks, and subsequently, multiple large-scale demand side flexibility (DSF) schemes are proposed per DER type, based on the cooperation of system operator and residential customer, to combat said issues and to significantly increase DER penetration. A rule-based approach is used for each DSF scheme, to highlight their effectiveness in ‘raw’ form, and to assess whether they merit further practical consideration. Using data on real LV feeders and real DER profiles, through a Monte Carlo simulation framework considering the stochastic behaviour of the various network elements, DER impact and DSF performance are measured. The results include a major improvement in delivered power quality, highly increased DER accommodation capacity, a thorough comparison of the technical performance of each DSF scheme, and a conclusion on the effectiveness of each DSF scheme.

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