Operation window constrained strategic energy management of microgrid with electric vehicle and distributed resources

Operation window constrained strategic energy management of microgrid with electric vehicle and distributed resources

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

In this study, an operation window constrained strategic energy management (OWCSEM) for microgrid operational scheduling is examined. The scheduling problem is formulated as cost minimisation/benefit maximisation of distribution resources. The scheduling operation of distributed resources is evaluated for various perspectives such as customer driven, micro grid operator (MGO) driven and MGO driven with utility constraints. The MGO driven scheduling operation considers the distribution network loss minimisation in addition to economic benefits of distributed resources. The loss estimation of distributed network/microgrid is performed using forward-backward sweep algorithm, considering the ill-natured radial network. Thereafter, the optimisation is performed using modified gradient-based search method, considering the linear nature of the problem. The simulation results are presented and discussed for the three scheduling scenarios proposed under operation window constraints. The customer driven scheduling of distributed resources resulted in highest profit among all the scheduling alternatives. On the other hand, the MGO driven scheduling horizon resulted in lower line loss cost component at a compromise of distribution resource benefit. The utility constrained MGO driven scheduling objective attained a compromise solution in terms of loss component and customer benefit. Thus, it is identified as best practice for overall welfare maximisation of microgrid/distribution network.


    1. 1)
    2. 2)
      • 2. Multi-Year Program Plan 2011–2015 Vehicle Technologies Program’, Energy efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S Department of Energy. Available at program-plan-2011-2015.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Guide to purchasing green power renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates, and on-site renewable generation’. Available at for web.pdf.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., et al (EDs): ‘Climate change 2007: mitigation of climate change. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC)’ (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2007).
    5. 5)
      • 5. One Million Electric Vehicles By 2015, Status Report, Department of Energy, US, February 2011. Available at
    6. 6)
      • 6. Investing in ultralow emission vehicles in the UK, 2015 to 2020. Available at
    7. 7)
      • 7. Public Attitudes to Electric Vehicles, statistical release, Department of Transport, 19th June 2014. Available at
    8. 8)
    9. 9)
    10. 10)
      • 10. Nafisi, H., Agah, S.M.M., Askarian Abyaneh, H., et al: ‘Two-stage optimization method for energy loss minimization in microgrid based on smart power management scheme of PHEVs’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2015, PP, (99), pp. 19.
    11. 11)
    12. 12)
    13. 13)
    14. 14)
    15. 15)
    16. 16)
    17. 17)
    18. 18)
    19. 19)
    20. 20)
      • 20. Gaurav, B., Pratap, S.B., Rajesh, K.: ‘Strategic optimisation of microgrid by evolving a unitised regenerative fuel cell system operational criterion’, Int. J. Sustain. Energy, 2014. Available at
    21. 21)
    22. 22)
    23. 23)
      • 23. BYD Electric Bus. Available at
    24. 24)
      • 24. BYD Fe Battery for HEV/EV, 8 February 2009. Available at

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address