Optimal charging and discharging for EVs in a V2G participation under critical peak conditions

Optimal charging and discharging for EVs in a V2G participation under critical peak conditions

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Integrating electric vehicles (EVs) into the smart grid can support various services for the power grid through the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system. In this study, the effects of critical peaks (CPs) on EVs’ charge/discharge process (CDP) while providing V2G services are critically investigated. A charge/discharge optimisation algorithm for EVs while considering varying charging costs and discharging incentives is proposed. Primarily, a probability model for the occurrence of CPs is formulated and incorporated in a time-of-use tariff plan. Considering the battery capacity loss in a CDP, an optimisation model is developed based on a non-linear programming model. An optimisation algorithm is proposed to enhance the EVs’ CDP. The goal is to obtain the least possible charging cost per day while facilitating the V2G services, especially in case of CPs. The effects of CPs on the per day charging cost while considering real-life scenarios are investigated. Furthermore, the dependence of the energy discharged by the EV on the number of estimated battery cycle life and the per day charging cost considering battery replacement is analysed.

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