Electric vehicles' impact on British distribution networks

Electric vehicles' impact on British distribution networks

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Battery charging of electric vehicles (EVs) will increase the power demand in distribution networks. It is anticipated that this will cause voltage drops, thermal overloads and an increase in losses. The severity of the impact will depend on the EV owners’ behaviour. A generic three-phase low voltage (LV) residential distribution network model was used to evaluate the effects of EV battery charging on distribution networks, the effect of a smart charging regime for EVs as well as the contribution of dispersed micro-generation (mGen) sources. The uncertainties associated with the residential loads, m-Gen and EV owners’ behaviour, were addressed with a probabilistic approach. A case study was performed for the year 2030 using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The probabilistic assessment showed the importance of the above uncertainties.


    1. 1)
      • European Commission Directorate-General for Energy and Transport: ‘EU Energy in Figures 2010, CO2 Emissions by Sector’, accessed October 2011.
    2. 2)
      • European Federation for Transport and Environment: ‘How clean are Europe's cars? An analysis of carmaker progress towards EU CO2 targets in 2009’, 2010,, accessed October 2011.
    3. 3)
      • F. Hacker , R. Harthan , F. Matthes , W. Zimmer . Environmental impacts and impact on the electricity market of a large scale introduction of electric cars in Europe - Critical Review of Literature.
    4. 4)
      • Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform: Department for Transport: ‘Investigation into the scope for the transport sector to switch to electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles’ 2008,, accessed October 2011.
    5. 5)
    6. 6)
      • Roe, C., Evangelos, F., Meisel, J., Meliopoulos, S., Overbye, T.: `Power system level impacts of PHEVs', Proc. 42nd Int. Conf. Systems Science, January 2009, Hawaii, USA, p. 1–10.
    7. 7)
      • Farmer, C., Hines, P., Dowds, J., Blumsack, S.: `Modeling the impact of increasing PHEV loads on the distribution infrastructure', Proc. 43rd Hawaii Int. Conf. System Sciences, January 2010, Honolulu, USA.
    8. 8)
      • Galus, M.D., Andersson, G.: `Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into energy networks', Proc. Conf. IEEE Power Tech, July 2009, Bucharest, Romania, p. 1–8.
    9. 9)
      • Zhao, L., Prousch, S., Hübner, M., Moser, A.: `Simulation methods for assessing electric vehicle impact on distribution grids', Proc. Conf. Transmission and Distribution and Exposition, April 2010, New Orleans, USA, p. 1–7.
    10. 10)
    11. 11)
      • Soares, F.J., Lopes, J.A.P., Almeida, P.M.R.: `A Monte Carlo method to evaluate electric vehicles impacts in distribution networks', Proc. Conf. Innovative Technologies for an Efficient and Reliable Electricity Supply, September 2010, Waltham, USA, p. 365–372.
    12. 12)
      • Pollok, T., Dederichs, T., Smolka, T.: `Technical assessment of dispersed electric vehicles in medium voltage distribution networks', 20thInt. Conf. on Electricity Distribution Prague, June 2009, Chech Republic, p. 1–4.
    13. 13)
      • Maitra, A., Taylor, J., Brooks, D., Alexander, M., Duvall, M.: `Integrating plug-in-electric vehicles with the distribution system', 20thInt. Conf. on Electricity Distribution Prague, June 2009, Chech Republic, p. 1–4.
    14. 14)
    15. 15)
      • Acha, S., Green, T.C., Shah, N.: `Effects of optimised plug-in hybrid vehicle charging strategies on electric distribution network losses', Proc. Conf. Transmission and Distribution and Exposition, April 2010, New Orleans, USA, p. 1–6.
    16. 16)
      • Taylor, J., Maitra, A., Alexander, M., Brooks, D., Duvall, M.: `Evaluation of the impact of plug-in electric vehicle loading on distribution system operations', Proc. Power Energy Society General Meeting, July 2010, Calgary, USA, p. 1–6.
    17. 17)
      • Schneider, K., Gerkensmeyer, C., Kintner-Meyer, M., Fletcher, R.: `Impact assessment of plug-in hybrid vehicles on Pacific Northwest distribution systems', Proc. Power Energy Society General Meeting – Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, July 2008, Pittsburgh, USA, p. 1–6.
    18. 18)
      • Putrus, G.A., Suwanapingkarl, P., Johnston, D., Bentley, E.C., Narayana, M.: `Impact of electric vehicles on power distribution networks', Proc. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conf., September 2009, Dearborn, USA, p. 827–831.
    19. 19)
      • Clement, K., Haesen, E., Driesen, J.: `The impact of charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the distribution grid', Proc. Int. Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symp., May 2009, Stavanger, Norway.
    20. 20)
      • K. Clement , E. Haesen , J. Driesen . Analysis of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on residential distribution grids by using quadratic and dynamic programming. World Electr. Veh. J. , 3 , 1 - 11
    21. 21)
    22. 22)
      • Valsera-Naranjo, E., Sumper, A., Lloret-Gallego, P., Villaf́afila-Robles, R., Sudría-Andreu, A.: `Deterministic and probabilistic assessment of the impact of the electrical vehicles on the power grid', Proc. Conf. Power Energy Society General Meeting, July 2010, Detroit, USA, p. 1–8.
    23. 23)
      • Papadopoulos, P., Cipcigan, L.M., Jenkins, N., Grau, I.: `Distribution networks with electric vehicles', Proc. Conf. 44th Universities Power Engineering, September 2009, Glasgow, UK.
    24. 24)
      • Papadopoulos, P., Skarvelis-Kazakos, S., Grau, I., Cipcigan, L.M., Jenkins, N.: `Predicting electric vehicle impacts on residential distribution networks with distributed generation', Proc. Conf. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion, September 2010, Lille, France, p. 1–5.
    25. 25)
      • Papadopoulos, P., Skarvelis-Kazakos, S., Grau, I., Awad, B., Cipcigan, L.M., Jenkins, N.: `Impact of residential charging of electric vehicles on distribution networks, a probabilistic approach', Proc. Conf. 45th Universities Power Engineering, September 2010, Cardiff, UK.
    26. 26)
      • Grau, I., Skarvelis-Kazakos, S., Papadopoulos, P., Cipcigan, L.M., Jenkins, N.: `Electric vehicles support for intentional islanding. A prediction for 2030', Proc. North American Power Symp., October 2009, Starkville, USA.
    27. 27)
      •, accessed April 2011.
    28. 28)
      •, accessed April 2010.
    29. 29)
      • (2002) The electricity safety, quality and continuity regulations.
    30. 30)
      • J.H. Harlow . (2004) Electric power transformer engineering.
    31. 31)
      • L.L. Grigsby . (2007) The electric power engineering handbook.
    32. 32)
      • T. Short . (2003) Electric power distribution handbook.
    33. 33)
      •, accessed April 2011.
    34. 34)
      • Engineering recommendation G81 – Part 1: design and planning.
    35. 35)
      • Western Power Distribution: ‘Housing Development design framework appendix’,, accessed October 2011.
    36. 36)
      • T. Haggis . (2006) Network Design Manual.
    37. 37)
      • Le Poidevin, G., Williams, P., Dutton, T.: `Modern approaches to cable ratings in the UK', Proc. 19th Int. Conf. on Electricity Distribution, May 2007, Vienna, Austria.
    38. 38)
      • G.F. Moore . (1997) Electric cables handbook.
    39. 39)
      •, accessed April 2011.
    40. 40)
      • Report on the current situation and future direction of electric vehicle charger standardization.
    41. 41)
      • UK Transport for London: ‘Guidance for implementation of electric vehicle charging infrastructure’ 2010,, accessed April 2011.
    42. 42)
      • S. Ingram , S. Probert , K. Jackson . (2003) The impact of small scale embedded generation on the operating parameters of distribution networks.
    43. 43)
      • Department of Energy and Climate Change, ‘Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics’, July 2007.
    44. 44)
      •, accessed April 2010.
    45. 45)
      • S.W. Hadley , A. Tsvetkova . Potential impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on regional power generation.
    46. 46)
      • R. Pratt , M. Kintner-Meyer , K. Schneider , M. Scott , D. Elliott , M. Warwick . (2007) Potential impacts of high penetration of plug-in hybrid vehicles on the U.S. power grid.
    47. 47)
      • T. Lambert , P. Gilman , P. Lilienthal . Micropower system modeling with HOMER.
    48. 48)
    49. 49)
      • Carbon Trust: ‘Micro-CHP Accelerator, Interim Report’, November 2007.
    50. 50)
      • DTI Centre for Distributed Generation and Sustainable Electrical Energy: ‘United Kingdom Generic Distribution System (UKGDS)’, 14 March 2006.
    51. 51)
    52. 52)
      • J. Charnes . (2007) Financial modeling with Crystal Ball and excel.
    53. 53)
      • Papadopoulos, P., Grau, I., Fernández, M.: `Analysis of an electric vehicle agent based management model', Proc. Third European Conf. on Smart Grids and E-Mobility, October 2011, Munich, Germany.
    54. 54)
      •, accessed October 2011.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address