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Self-regulating particle swarm optimised controller for (photovoltaic–fuel cell) battery charging of hybrid electric vehicles

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Abstract

This study presents the use of hybrid photovoltaic–fuel cell (PV–FC) renewable energy scheme for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) battery-charging stations. The hybrid PV–FC DC interface scheme is dynamically controlled using a self-regulating tri-loop controller based on multi-objective particle swarm optimisation. The proposed utilisation scheme ensures efficient DC source energy utilisation from the hybrid PV–FC DC with minimal DC current inrush conditions and a fully stabilised DC bus voltage. The multi-loop battery-charging regulator allows for hybrid (voltage, current and power) charging modes for efficient, fast charging and DC energy efficient utilisation. The proposed hybrid renewable green energy PV–FC battery-charging scheme is fully validated by simulation and laboratory prototype testing.

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