Green-oriented user-satisfaction aware WiFi offloading in HetNets

Green-oriented user-satisfaction aware WiFi offloading in HetNets

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Communications — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

To cope with the tremendous growth of data traffic and obtain a given communication service with minimal energy use, traffic offloading and energy efficiency (EE) improving are two important issues to address for green cellular networks. The authors investigate downlink WiFi offloading in a heterogeneous network consisting of one long term evolution eNodeB (eNB) and multiple overlaid WiFi access points to maximise the user satisfaction of the whole system. In addition, a designed resource reallocation scheme after offloading is jointly considered to improve the EE of the eNB. In the offloading model, two constraints are considered to guarantee the rate promotion of the offloaded users and less impact on WiFi networks. Moreover, the authors transform the model into a combinatorial optimisation problem and adopt the best response (BR) algorithm based on game-theoretic approach to obtain the optimal offloading user set. Numerical results show that the proposed WiFi-offloading model can significantly improve the aggregate user satisfaction as well as EE of the eNB. Also, the BR algorithm can converge to the optimal solution same as the exhaustive search algorithm through several iterations.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Chakrapani, A., Malaney, R.: ‘Green communication through optimal power allocation in 4G networks’. IEEE RIVF Int. Conf. on Computing and Communication Technologies, Research, Innovation, and Vision for the Future, 2013, pp. 8084.
    2. 2)
      • 2. He, H., Shan, H., Huang, A., et al: ‘Proportional fairness-based resource allocation for LTE-U coexisting with WiFi’, IEEE Access, 2016, 99, pp. 11.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Zhang, R., Wang, M., Cai, L.X., et al: ‘LTE-unlicensed: the future of spectrum aggregation for cellular networks’, IEEE Wirel. Commun., 2015, 22, (3), pp. 150159.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Zhang, N., Zhang, S., Wu, S., et al: ‘Beyond coexistence: traffic steering in LTE networks with unlicensed bands’, IEEE Wirel. Commun., 2016, 23, (6), pp. 4046.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Song, W., Zhuang, W.: ‘Multi-service load sharing for resource management in the cellular/WLAN integrated network’, IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., 2009, 8, (2), pp. 725735.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Song, W., Jiang, H., Zhuang, W.: ‘Performance analysis of the WLAN-first scheme in cellular/WLAN interworking’, IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., 2007, 6, (5), pp. 19321952.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Vereecken, W., Van Heddeghem, W., Colle, D., et al: ‘Overall ICT footprint and green communication technologies’. Int. Symp. on Communications, Control and Signal Processing, 2010, pp. 16.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Chen, T., Yang, Y., Zhang, H., et al: ‘Network energy saving technologies for green wireless access networks’, IEEE Wirel. Commun., 2011, 18, (5), pp. 3038.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Chen, T., Kim, H., Yang, Y.: ‘Energy efficiency metrics for green wireless communications’. Int. Conf. on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, 2010, pp. 16.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Chen, Q., Yu, G., Shan, H., et al: ‘Cellular meets WiFi: traffic offloading or resource sharing’? IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., 2016, 15, (5), pp. 33543367.
    11. 11)
      • 11. Jung, B.H., Song, N.O., Dan, K.S.: ‘A network-assisted user-centric WiFi-offloading model for maximizing per-user throughput in a heterogeneous network’, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 2014, 63, (4), pp. 19401945.
    12. 12)
      • 12. Sethakaset, U., Chia, Y.K., Sun, S.: ‘Energy efficient WiFi offloading for cellular uplink transmissions’. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., 2014, pp. 15.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Zhou, F., Feng, L., Yu, P., et al: ‘Energy-efficiency driven load balancing strategy in LTE-WiFi interworking heterogeneous networks’. Wireless Communications and Networking Conf. Workshops, 2015, pp. 276281.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Wu, Y., Chen, J., Qian, L.P., et al: ‘Energy-aware cooperative traffic offloading via device-to-device cooperations: an analytical approach’, IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput., 2016, 16, (1), pp. 97114.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Chiang, Y.H., Liao, W.: ‘Genie: an optimal green policy for energy saving and traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks’. IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2013, pp. 62306234.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Aijaz, A., Aghvami, A.H.: ‘A green perspective on WiFi offloading’, IEEE Wirel. Commun., 2015, 23, (4), pp. 112119.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Jung, B.H., Song, N.O., Dan, K.S.: ‘An energy-efficient WiFi offloading model in a heterogeneous network’. IEEE Online Conf. on Green Communications, 2014, pp. 15.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Zhang, N., Zhang, S., Zheng, J., et al: ‘User satisfaction-aware radio resource management in ultra-dense small cell networks’. IEEE/CIC Int. Conf. on Communications in China, 2016, pp. 15.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Yang, K., Martin, S., Yahiya, T.A., et al: ‘Energy-efficient resource allocation for downlink in LTE heterogeneous networks’. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., 2014, pp. 15.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Jang, J., Lee, K.B.: ‘Transmit power adaptation for multiuser OFDM systems’, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., 2003, 21, (2), pp. 171178.
    21. 21)
      • 21. Zhang, N., Zhang, S., Zheng, J., et al: ‘QoE driven decentralized spectrum sharing in 5G networks: potential game approach’, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 99, pp. 11.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Zheng, J., Cai, Y., Liu, Y., et al: ‘Optimal power allocation and user scheduling in multicell networks: base station cooperation using a game-theoretic approach’, IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., 2014, 13, (12), pp. 69286942.
    23. 23)
      • 23. Monderer, D., Shapley, L.S.: ‘Potential games’, Games Econ. Behav., 1996, 14, (1), pp. 124143.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address