http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com
1887

Design and analysis of an ultra-thin crystalline silicon heterostructure solar cell featuring SiGe absorber layer

Design and analysis of an ultra-thin crystalline silicon heterostructure solar cell featuring SiGe absorber layer

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
£12.50
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Name:*
Email:*
Your details
Name:*
Email:*
Department:*
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
 
 
 
 
 
IET Circuits, Devices & Systems — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Here, the authors studied a silicon–germanium (Si1−x Ge x ) absorber layer for the design and simulation of an ultra-thin crystalline silicon solar cell using Silvaco technology computer-aided design. Seeking ways to design and fabricate solar cells using 100 μm thicker silicon substrates is the subject of intense research efforts among the photovoltaic (PV) community. The aim is to further reduce the substrate thickness to 20 μm without compromising the efficiency of the solar cell. A thin layer of SiGe film with the Ge composition of 15% has been introduced in this work that assists in absorbing the longer wavelength of the sunlight spectrum. The effects of the doping concentration and absorber layer thickness on the conversion efficiency have been examined. The simulated results exhibited significant enhancement in the sunlight absorption as compared to the reference structure based on crystalline silicon. The highest efficiency of 16.8% with an overall solar cell thickness of ∼26 μm has been observed. The proposed heterostructure solar cell design will support the industrial development of an efficient, low-cost, shorter energy payback time, and light-weight PV technology for its widespread implementation.

References

    1. 1)
      • J. Sawyer .
        1. Sawyer, J.: ‘Man-made carbon dioxide and the “greenhouse” effect’, Nature, 1972, 239, pp. 2326.
        . Nature , 23 - 26
    2. 2)
      • R. Millar , J. Fuglestvedt , P. Friedlingstein .
        2. Millar, R., Fuglestvedt, J., Friedlingstein, P., et al: ‘Emission budgets and pathways consistent with limiting warming to 1.5°C’, Nat. Geosci., 2017, 10, pp. 741747.
        . Nat. Geosci. , 741 - 747
    3. 3)
      • J.D. Shakun , P. Clark , H. Feng .
        3. Shakun, J.D., Clark, P., Feng, H., et al: ‘Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation’, Nature, 2012, 484, pp. 4954.
        . Nature , 49 - 54
    4. 4)
      • K. Ricke , K. Caldeira .
        4. Ricke, K., Caldeira, K.: ‘Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission’, Environ. Res. Lett., 2014, 9, (12), p. 124002.
        . Environ. Res. Lett. , 12 , 124002
    5. 5)
      • 5. Report Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE): ‘Photovoltaics report’, Freiburg Germany, 2017, p. 4. Available at: https://www.ise.fraunhofer.de, retrieved 24 November 2017.
        .
    6. 6)
      • 6. Report SolarPower Europe (SPE): ‘Global market outlook 2017–2021’, Brussels, Belgium, 2017, p. 7. Available at: www.solarpowereurope.org, retrieved 24 November 2017.
        . , 7
    7. 7)
      • 7. Report Solar Power Europe (SPE): ‘Global market outlook for solar power 2015–2019’, Brussels, Belgium, 2015. Available at: www.webcitation.org/6ZA1o2aLo, retrieved 10 May 2016.
        .
    8. 8)
      • A. James .
        8. James, A.: ‘Global PV demand outlook 2015–2020: exploring risk in downstream solar markets solar market research’, 2015. Available at: www.greentechmedia.com, retrieved 10 May 2016.
        .
    9. 9)
      • K. Yoshikawa , H. Kawasaki , W. Yoshida .
        9. Yoshikawa, K., Kawasaki, H., Yoshida, W., et al: ‘Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%’, Nat. Energy, 2017, 2, p. 17032.
        . Nat. Energy , 17032
    10. 10)
      • M. Green , Y. Hishikawa , W. Warta .
        10. Green, M., Hishikawa, Y., Warta, W., et al: ‘Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50)’, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl., 2017, 25, (7), pp. 668676.
        . Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. , 7 , 668 - 676
    11. 11)
      • S. Glunz , R. Preu , D. Biro . (2012)
        11. Glunz, S., Preu, R., Biro, D.: ‘Crystalline silicon solar cells: state-of-the-art and future developments’, in Sayigh, A. (Ed.): ‘Comprehensive renewable energy’ (Elsevier, 2012, 1), pp. 353387.
        .
    12. 12)
      • Y. Zhang , N. Stokes , B. Jia .
        12. Zhang, Y., Stokes, N., Jia, B., et al: ‘Towards ultra-thin plasmonic silicon wafer solar cells with minimized efficiency loss’, Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, p. 4939.
        . Sci. Rep. , 4939
    13. 13)
      • Z. Liu , M. Yamanaka , H. Takato .
        13. Liu, Z., Yamanaka, M., Takato, H., et al: ‘MBE growth of crystalline SiGe thin films for solar cell applications with precisely controlled heterojunction’. Proc. 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Seattle, WA, 2011, pp. 256261.
        . Proc. 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. , 256 - 261
    14. 14)
      • K. Maydell , K. Grunewald , M. Kellermann .
        14. Maydell, K., Grunewald, K., Kellermann, M., et al: ‘Microcrystalline SiGe absorber layers in thin-film silicon solar cells’, Energy Proc., 2014, 44, pp. 209215.
        . Energy Proc. , 209 - 215
    15. 15)
      • Y. Wang , X. Lu , S. R. Huang .
        15. Wang, Y., Lu, X., Huang, S. R., et al: ‘Heteroepitaxial growth of SiGe on Si by LPE for high efficiency solar cells’. Proc. 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Philadelphia, PA, 2009, pp. 16961698.
        . Proc. 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. , 1696 - 1698
    16. 16)
      • M. Diaz , L. Wang , D. Li .
        16. Diaz, M., Wang, L., Li, D., et al: ‘Tandem GaAsP/SiGe on Si solar cells’, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. C, 2015, 143, pp. 113119.
        . Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. C , 113 - 119
    17. 17)
      • K. Bourzac .
        17. Bourzac, K.: ‘Flexible silicon solar cells, thin but efficient solar cells use one-tenth the silicon of conventional cells’, MIT Technology Review: Sustainable Energy, 2008. Available at www.technologyreview.com/s/410934/flexible-silicon-solar-cells, retrieved 24 November 2017.
        .
    18. 18)
      • M. Spitzer , J. Shewchun , E. Vera .
        18. Spitzer, M., Shewchun, J., Vera, E., et al: ‘Ultra high efficiency thin silicon pn junction solar cells using reflecting surfaces’. Proc. 14th Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., 1980, pp. 375380.
        . Proc. 14th Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. , 375 - 380
    19. 19)
      • T. Chu , S. S. Chu , E. Stokes .
        19. Chu, T., Chu, S. S., Stokes, E.: ‘Large grain silicon films on metallurgical silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications’, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. C, 1980, 2, pp. 265275.
        . Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. C , 265 - 275
    20. 20)
      • L. Wang , A. Lochtefeld , J. Han .
        20. Wang, L., Lochtefeld, A., Han, J., et al: ‘Development of a 16.8% efficient 18-μm silicon solar cell on steel’, IEEE J. Photovoltaics, 2014, 4, (6), pp. 13971404.
        . IEEE J. Photovoltaics , 6 , 1397 - 1404
    21. 21)
      • O. Skibitzki , A. Paszuk , F. Hatami .
        21. Skibitzki, O., Paszuk, A., Hatami, F., et al: ‘Lattice-engineered Si1-xGex-buffer on Si(001) for GaP integration’, J. Appl. Phys., 2014, 115, p. 103501.
        . J. Appl. Phys. , 103501
    22. 22)
      • M. Tayanagi , N. Usami , W. Pan .
        22. Tayanagi, M., Usami, N., Pan, W., et al: ‘Improvement in the conversion efficiency of single-junction SiGe solar cells by intentional introduction of the compositional distribution’, J. Appl. Phys., 2007, 101, (5), p. 54504.
        . J. Appl. Phys. , 5 , 54504
    23. 23)
      • S. Han , G. Chen .
        23. Han, S., Chen, G.: ‘Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics’, Nano Lett.., 2010, 10, (3), pp. 10121015.
        . Nano Lett.. , 3 , 1012 - 1015
    24. 24)
      • C. Eisele , M. Berger , M. Nerding .
        24. Eisele, C., Berger, M., Nerding, M., et al: ‘Laser-crystallized microcrystalline SiGe alloys for thin film solar cells’, Thin Solid Films, 2003, 427, (1–2), pp. 176180.
        . Thin Solid Films , 176 - 180
    25. 25)
      • K. Said , J. Poortmans , M. Caymax .
        25. Said, K., Poortmans, J., Caymax, M., et al: ‘Design, fabrication, and analysis of crystalline Si-SiGe heterostructure thin-film solar cells’, IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev., 1999, 46, (10), pp. 21032110.
        . IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev. , 10 , 2103 - 2110
    26. 26)
      • C. Wang , D. Wuu , S. Lein .
        26. Wang, C., Wuu, D., Lein, S., et al: ‘Characterization of nanocrystalline SiGe thin film solar cell with double graded-dead absorption layer’, Int. J. Photoenergy, 2012, 2012, Article ID 890284, DOI: 10.1155/2012/890284.
        . Int. J. Photoenergy
    27. 27)
      • L. Zhang , J. Lan , J. Yang .
        27. Zhang, L., Lan, J., Yang, J., et al: ‘Study on the physical properties of indium tin oxide thin films deposited by microwave-assisted spray pyrolysis’, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, 728, pp. 13381345.
        . J. Alloys Compd. , 1338 - 1345
    28. 28)
      • G. Du , B. Chen , N. Chen .
        28. Du, G., Chen, B., Chen, N., et al: ‘Efficient boron doping in the back surface field of crystalline silicon solar cells via alloyed-aluminum–boron paste’, IEEE Electron Device Lett., 2012, 33, (4), pp. 573575.
        . IEEE Electron Device Lett. , 4 , 573 - 575
    29. 29)
      • H. Mehmood , H. Nasser , T. Tauqeer .
        29. Mehmood, H., Nasser, H., Tauqeer, T., et al: ‘Numerical analysis of silicon heterojunction solar cell based on molybdenum oxide as a back surface field (BSF)’. Proc. 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. and Exhibition (EU PVSEC), Amsterdam, Holland, 2017, pp. 932936. DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20172017-2CV.2.66.
        . Proc. 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. and Exhibition (EU PVSEC) , 932 - 936
    30. 30)
      • H. Mehmood , H. Nasser , E. Ozkol .
        30. Mehmood, H., Nasser, H., Ozkol, E., et al: ‘Physical device simulation of partial dopant-free asymmetric silicon heterostructure solar cell (P-DASH) based on hole-selective molybdenum oxide (MoOx) with crystalline silicon (cSi)’. IEEE Int. Conf. Eng. Technology (ICET2017), Antalya, Turkey, August 2017, pp. 16, in press.
        . IEEE Int. Conf. Eng. Technology (ICET2017) , 1 - 6
    31. 31)
      • C. Penn , F. Schäffler , G. Bauer .
        31. Penn, C., Schäffler, F., Bauer, G.: ‘Application of numerical exciton-wave-function calculations to the question of band alignment in Si/Si1 − xGex quantum wells’, Phys. Rev. B, 1999, 59, p. 13314.
        . Phys. Rev. B , 13314
    32. 32)
      • H. Mehmood , H. Nasser , T. Tauqeer .
        32. Mehmood, H., Nasser, H., Tauqeer, T., et al: ‘Simulation of an efficient silicon heterostructure solar cell concept featuring molybdenum oxide carrier-selective contact’, Int. J. Energy Res., 2017, in press, DOI: 10.1002/er.3947.
        . Int. J. Energy Res.
    33. 33)
      • D. Vasileska , S. Goodnick . (2006)
        33. Vasileska, D., Goodnick, S.: ‘Computational electronics’ (Morgan & Claypool Publishers, USA, 2006, 1st edn.), p. 197.
        .
    34. 34)
      • M. Kumar . (2016)
        34. Kumar, M.: ‘Computer aided design of micro- and nanoelectronic devices’ (World Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd., Singapore, 2016), pp. 175.
        .
    35. 35)
      • M. Green .
        35. Green, M.: ‘Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients’, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. C., 2008, 92, (11), pp. 13051310.
        . Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. C. , 11 , 1305 - 1310
    36. 36)
      • (2013)
        36. Silvaco ATLAS Manual: SOPRA database for Si0.85Ge0.15’, User's Manual (Silvaco Inc., Santa Clara, CA, 2013), p. 1487.
        .
    37. 37)
      • S. Sze , M. Lee . (2012)
        37. Sze, S., Lee, M.: ‘Chapter 2: energy bands and carrier concentration in thermal equilibrium’, in Singleton, K. (Ed.): ‘Semiconductor devices physics and technology’ (John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USA, 2012, 3rd edn.), pp. 3435.
        .
    38. 38)
      • N. Jensen , U. Rau , R.M. Hausner .
        38. Jensen, N., Rau, U., Hausner, R.M., et al: ‘Recombination mechanisms in amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells’, J. Appl. Phys., 2000, 87, (5), pp. 26392645.
        . J. Appl. Phys. , 5 , 2639 - 2645
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1049/iet-cds.2017.0132
Loading

Related content

content/journals/10.1049/iet-cds.2017.0132
pub_keyword,iet_inspecKeyword,pub_concept
6
6
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address