Stepped θ-QAM for high-order modulation

Stepped θ-QAM for high-order modulation

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
Electronics Letters — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

M-ary stepped θ-QAM (θ-QAM) for M = 22l , l ≥ 3 based on square QAM is proposed. The signal constellation of stepped θ-QAM and the coordinates of the symbols generalised for modulation order M are presented. Then analyse the symbol error rate (SER) performance, and the optimum value of θ in terms of minimum SER for stepped θ-QAM in additive white Gaussian noise and fading channels. Through computer simulations, the theoretical results are validated and show that stepped θ-QAM offers better error performance than θ-QAM.


    1. 1)
    2. 2)
    3. 3)
    4. 4)
      • A. Awadalla , K.T. Wu , D. Yevick .
        4. Awadalla, A., Wu, K.T., Yevick, D.: ‘Comparison between square and stepped-square QAM for optical transmission’. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., California, USA, 2015.
        . Optical Fiber Communication Conf.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address