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Bidirectional optical transcutaneous telemetric link for brain machine interface

Bidirectional optical transcutaneous telemetric link for brain machine interface

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A wavelength division multiplexing-based bidirectional optical transcutaneous telemetric data link for brain machine interfaces is reported. By converting the digitised electronic signals to a stream of infrared and visible optical pulses, the optical telemetry wirelessly transmits data between the implanted neural recorder/stimulator and the external control devices. A red visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with a peak wavelength of 680 nm is used in the downlink to transmit data from the external base unit to the implant. A near infrared VCSEL with a peak wavelength of 850 nm is utilised in the uplink for data transmission from the implants to the external device. An optical filter is applied to minimise the interference between the two channels. In-vitro experiments show that the uplink is capable of transmitting data at 100 Mbps through 2 mm of porcine skin while the downlink is simultaneously working at a rate of 1 Mbps. The power consumption of the implant part of the telemetry, including the transmitter for the uplink and the receiver for the downlink are 3.2 mW and 290 μW, corresponding to a transmission power efficiencies of 32 and 290 pJ/bit, respectively, which are among the best reported and unseen for bidirectional high-speed transcutaneous communication.

Inspec keywords: optical links; bio-optics; optical receivers; neurophysiology; telecommunication channels; skin; laser cavity resonators; biomedical telemetry; prosthetics; optical transmitters; surface emitting lasers; brain-computer interfaces; wavelength division multiplexing; optical filters

Other keywords: near infrared VCSEL; implanted neural recorder; implanted neural stimulator; receiver; depth 2 mm; wavelength division multiplexing; bit rate 1 Mbit/s; optical telemetry; wavelength 850 nm; optical filter; transmitter; channel interference; power consumption; power 290 muW; wavelength 680 nm; infrared pulses; transmission power efficiency; red visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser; brain machine interface; data transmission; visible optical pulses; bidirectional optical transcutaneous telemetric link; external control devices; porcine skin; power 3.2 mW; digitised electronic signals; bit rate 100 Mbit/s

Subjects: Optical and laser radiation (biomedical imaging/measurement); Optical coatings and filters; Laser resonators and cavities; Semiconductor lasers; Multiplexing and switching in optical communication; Prosthetics and orthotics; Computer assistance for persons with handicaps; User interfaces; Optical and laser radiation (medical uses); Telemetry; Biomedical communication; Laser resonators and cavities; Lasing action in semiconductors; Spectral and other filters; Biology and medical computing; Optical communication equipment; Prosthetics and other practical applications; Design of specific laser systems; Optical communication devices, equipment and systems; Biophysics of neurophysiological processes; Free-space optical links

References

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      • S. Lange , H. Xu , C. Lang .
        2. Lange, S., Xu, H., Lang, C., et al: ‘An AC-powered optical receiver consuming 270 μW for transcutaneous 2 Mb/s data transfer’. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Digest of Technical Papers, 2011, 2011, vol. 20–24, pp. 304306.
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      • T. Liu , J. Becker , J. Anders , M. Ortmanns .
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      • T. Liu , U. Bihr , J. Becker , J. Anders , M. Ortmanns .
        7. Liu, T., Bihr, U., Becker, J., Anders, J., Ortmanns, M.: ‘In vivo verification of a 100 Mbps transcutaneous optical telemetric link’, Proc. IEEE BioCAS, 2014, 22–24, pp. 580583.
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