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Adaptive OFDM waveform design for spatio-temporal-sparsity exploited STAP radar

Adaptive OFDM waveform design for spatio-temporal-sparsity exploited STAP radar

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In this chapter, we describe a sparsity-based space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm to detect a slowly moving target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar. The motivation of employing an OFDM signal is that it improves the target-detectability from the interfering signals by increasing the frequency diversity of the system. However, due to the addition of one extra dimension in terms of frequency, the adaptive degrees-of-freedom in an OFDM-STAP also increases. Therefore, to avoid the construction a fully adaptive OFDM-STAP, we develop a sparsity-based STAP algorithm. We observe that the interference spectrum is inherently sparse in the spatio-temporal domain, as the clutter responses occupy only a diagonal ridge on the spatio-temporal plane and the jammer signals interfere only from a few spatial directions. Hence, we exploit that sparsity to develop an efficient STAP technique that utilizes considerably lesser number of secondary data compared to the other existing STAP techniques, and produces nearly optimum STAP performance. In addition to designing the STAP filter, we optimally design the transmit OFDM signals by maximizing the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) in order to improve the STAP performance. The computation of output SINR depends on the estimated value of the interference covariance matrix, which we obtain by applying the sparse recovery algorithm. Therefore, we analytically assess the effects of the synthesized OFDM coefficients on the sparse recovery of the interference covariance matrix by computing the coherence measure of the sparse measurement matrix. Our numerical examples demonstrate the achieved STAP-performance due to sparsity-based technique and adaptive waveform design.

Chapter Contents:

  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.1.1 Notations
  • 2.2 Sparse-measurement model
  • 2.2.1 OFDM signal model
  • 2.2.2 Sparse measurement model
  • 2.2.3 Statistical assumptions
  • 2.3 STAP filter design
  • 2.4 Optimal waveform design
  • 2.5 Numerical results
  • 2.5.1 Sparsity-based STAP performance
  • 2.5.2 Performance improvement due to adaptive waveform design
  • 2.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Inspec keywords: radar interference; filtering theory; object detection; space-time adaptive processing; covariance matrices; radar clutter; jamming; radar detection; OFDM modulation

Other keywords: SINR; OFDM radar; adaptive OFDM waveform design; signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio; orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radar; STAP filter; jammer signal interference; moving target detection; interference covariance matrix; sparse recovery algorithm; interference spectrum; sparse measurement matrix; space-time adaptive processing algorithm; spatiotemporal-sparsity exploited STAP radar; adaptive degrees-of-freedom

Subjects: Algebra; Electromagnetic compatibility and interference; Signal detection; Modulation and coding methods; Radar equipment, systems and applications; Filtering methods in signal processing

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