Sensitivity analysis for frequency-dependent objective functions
In this chapter, we address the practical case of frequency-dependent objective functions such as the S-parameters, the Z-parameters, and the V-parameters. These parameters are usually estimated over a band of frequencies. The timedomain solver returns a vector of complex numbers representing the values of these responses at different frequencies. The AVM approach estimates the sensitivities of these responses over the desired frequency band using at most one extra simulation.