Introduction to FDTD
Computational electromagnetics (CEM) has evolved rapidly during the past decade to a point where now extremely accurate predictions can be given for a variety of electromagnetic problems, including the scattering cross-section of radar targets and the precise design of antennas and microwave devices. In general, commonly used CEM methods are based on the applications of Maxwell's equations and the appropriate boundary conditions associated with the problem to be solved.The basic formulation of the commonly used time-domain differential equation approach, namely the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for CEM applications, is covered in this chapter. This formulation sets the stage for the adjoint variable methods covered in the subsequent chapters. Most of the materials in this chapter is extracted from the authors' recent book .