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Types of road pricing, and measuring scheme cost and performance

Types of road pricing, and measuring scheme cost and performance

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Different types of road pricing schemes (point, cordon, area, distance) will be addressed, including how we pay at the moment, how technology might enable different types of payment, examples of different types of payment and how we might pay differently to use roads in the future. The chapter will also introduce the technologies used in road pricing. It is an update of an Intelligent Transport Systems (UK) White Paper. New approaches to measuring the cost and performance of road user charging schemes will also be covered. We aim to address many of the misconceptions that arise from comparing the operating cost and performance amongst schemes that have different policy objectives and operating characteristics.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Policy context
  • 3.2.1 Policy options
  • 3.2.1.1 Aims of road use charging
  • 3.2.1.2 Scheme objectives for urban and wider area-based schemes
  • 3.2.1.3 Measures complementary to road user charging
  • 3.2.2 Major scheme design issues
  • 3.2.2.1 Point-based charging: tolling
  • 3.2.2.2 Area licencing and entry permit schemes
  • 3.2.2.3 Cordon charging schemes
  • 3.2.2.4 Multi-cordon and zone-based charging schemes
  • 3.2.2.5 Distance-based charging schemes
  • 3.2.2.6 Time-based charging schemes
  • 3.2.2.7 Closed tolling
  • 3.2.2.8 National road pricing
  • 3.2.3 Major scheme design issues: other charging options
  • 3.2.3.1 Strategic and interurban routes: corridor charging
  • 3.2.3.2 High Occupancy Vehicle and High Occupancy Toll (HOV/HOT) Lanes
  • 3.2.4 Practical considerations in defining charging schemes
  • 3.2.4.1 Extent of congestion or pollution
  • 3.2.4.2 Simplicity
  • 3.2.4.3 Impact on through traffic
  • 3.2.4.4 Pricing policy for multiple crossings/entries
  • 3.2.4.5 Availability and perceived quality of alternative transport modes
  • 3.2.4.6 Equity and land use issues
  • 3.2.4.7 Increased activity at the boundary
  • 3.2.4.8 Costs and revenues
  • 3.2.4.9 Exemptions, discounts and concessions
  • 3.2.4.10 Streetscape and aesthetics
  • 3.2.4.11 Vehicle classification and relation to charges
  • 3.2.5 Security, privacy and fraud
  • 3.2.6 Enforcement
  • 3.2.6.1 Criminalised vs. decriminalised enforcement
  • 3.2.6.2 What is being enforced?
  • 3.2.6.3 Fixed infrastructure enforcement
  • 3.3 Functional requirements
  • 3.3.1 Principal functions
  • 3.3.1.1 Time of day
  • 3.3.1.2 Position of vehicle and road segment
  • 3.3.1.3 Communication with the vehicle
  • 3.3.1.4 Identification of the vehicle
  • 3.3.1.5 Measurement of the distance travelled by the vehicle
  • 3.3.1.6 Charge calculations
  • 3.3.2 Security
  • 3.3.2.1 Introduction
  • 3.3.2.2 Requirements for physical security of equipment at the roadside and within vehicles
  • 3.3.2.3 Physical security of buildings to prevent unauthorised access to private data
  • 3.3.2.4 Security of data for RUC transactions, processing and transfer
  • 3.3.2.5 Access security to equipment to data to prevent possible fraudulent activity
  • 3.3.3 Enforceability and enforcement
  • 3.3.3.1 Introduction
  • 3.3.4 Privacy
  • 3.3.4.1 Introduction
  • 3.3.4.2 The requirements
  • 3.3.5 Environmental issues
  • 3.3.5.1 Improved network management
  • 3.3.5.2 Travel demand management
  • 3.3.5.3 Low emission zones
  • 3.3.6 Back-office processing – the central system
  • 3.3.6.1 Background
  • 3.3.6.2 Standards for back office
  • 3.3.6.3 Transaction and event processing
  • 3.3.6.4 Payment channels and accounts
  • 3.3.6.5 Enforcement processes
  • 3.3.6.6 Data quality
  • 3.4 Technology options
  • 3.4.1 Option 1: DSRC
  • 3.4.2 Option 2: GNSS/CN
  • 3.4.2.1 System operation of GNSS-based charging
  • 3.4.2.2 GNSS OBUs
  • 3.4.3 Video-ANPR
  • 3.4.4 Impact of charging policy on OBU requirements
  • 3.4.4.1 Prepay and post-pay
  • 3.4.4.2 Occasional users
  • 3.4.4.3 OBU operational issues
  • 3.5 Measuring scheme cost and performance
  • 3.5.1 Measures of cost
  • 3.5.2 Interoperability
  • 3.5.3 Performance management regimes
  • 3.6 Summary and conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: road traffic; road pricing (tolls)

Other keywords: Intelligent Transport Systems; performance measurement; scheme cost measurement; policy objectives; road pricing scheme

Subjects: Systems theory applications in transportation; Systems theory applications in economics and business

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