Urban transport and impacts on public health
The focus of this chapter is the impacts of urban transport on health: physical, mental, well-being, and livability. Specifically, and besides the traditionally obvious and well-studied subjects of transport-induced crash injuries and pollution health impacts, the chapter presents the modern day non-contagious ailments such as stress, cardiovascular diseases, physical inactivity, and obesity and highlights their links and interactions with urban transport systems. These health impacts are mostly significant in the long term. They are subtle, slow, and pervasive. They have traditionally not been addressed or even identified as transport related; only recently and just qualitatively, these impacts came to the fore of the interrelated subjects of urban form, transport, and modern day health problems. The chapter will identify the needs for research to both further the understanding of the dynamics between transport and urban form on one hand and the identified health impacts on the other. The chapter will also address the question of how to objectively measure and quantify these health impacts with a particular view to evaluating the benefits that can be realized through low carbon mobility solutions.